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[ANSWERED 2022] The purpose of the signature assignment is for students to apply the research and EBP concepts they have learned in this course and develop a framework for the initial steps of the student’s capstone project

Signature Assignment – Evidence-Based Project Proposal

Assignment Prompt

The purpose of the signature assignment is for students to apply the research and EBP concepts they have learned in this course and develop a framework for the initial steps of the student’s capstone project. The assignment allows the student to initiate the steps for planning, researching and developing an evidence-based practice intervention project proposal.

On or before Day 7, of week eight each student will submit his or her final proposal paper to the week eight assignment link in D2L. This formal paper will include and expand upon work completed thus far in prior assignments.

Essential Components of the Final Project Proposal will include:

  1. Introduction– Provide an introduction to your topic or project. The introduction gives the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the project will cover and what can be gained from implementation of this project.
  2. Overview of the Problem – Discuss the problem,  why the problem is worth exploring and the potential contribution of the proposed project to the discipline of nursing.
  3. Project Purpose Statement – Provide a declarative sentence or two which summarizes the specific topic and goals of the project.
  4. Background and Significance – State the importance of the problem and emphasize what is innovative about your proposed project. Discuss the potential impact of your project on your anticipated results to the betterment of health and/or health outcomes.
  5. PICOt formatted Clinical Project Question(s)– Provide the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Expected Outcomes and Timeframe for the proposed project.
  6. Literature Review – Provide the key terms used to guide a search for evidence and discuss at least five (5) summaries of relevant, credible, recent, evidence-based research studies to support the project proposal.
  7. Critical Appraisal of Literature – Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence, what is known from the evidence and what gaps in evidence were found from the appraisal of evidence-based research studies.
  8. Develop an EBP Standard – Describe two to three interventions (or a bundle of care) from the evidence and discuss how individual patient preferences or the preferences of others will be considered.
  9. Implications – Summarize the potential contributions of the proposed project for nursing research, education and practice.

Expectations

  • Length: A minimum of 8 pages and a maximum of 10 pages (excluding the title and reference pages)
  • Format: Formal scholarly paper in APA 7th ed format
  • Reference Citations: A minimum of five, recent (past five years), peer-reviewed scholarly references cited in APA 7th ed format.
  • File name: Save the file with Student First Name_Last Name_SigAssignment

Expert Answer and Explanation

Intervention Protocol to Improve Adult vaccination Rate

Introduction

Adult vaccines are scientifically proven to improve the quality of life in adults, similar to Children’s vaccines. Adults are often at a higher risk of sicknesses, complications, hospitalization, disability, and death from vaccine-preventable diseases compared to children. Vaccination offers prevention against diseases like influenza and pneumococcal, the leading vaccine-preventable diseases that affect adults in the US. It boosts an individual’s immunity system by creating antibodies that remain alert to fight disease-causing agents when the body comes into contact and also helps protect individuals with compromised immunities such as the aged and those with medical underlying conditions. CDC publishes annual recommendations to emphasize the importance of adult vaccination and save lives (Navarro-Torné et al., 2021). However, healthcare facilities have limited information about adult vaccines and about vaccination schedules that cause reduced adult vaccination rates. The intervention protocols are implemented to improve the adult vaccination rate to minimize vaccine-preventable diseases and deaths. Also, they will give recommendations on specific strategies that will help enhance the adult vaccination rate.

Overview of the Problem

The majority of adults remain unaware of immunizations prescribed for them, whereby they do not receive their vaccinations while others fail to receive them on time. Lack of information increases the risk of contracting vaccine-preventable diseases and spreading them to others, causing disease outbreaks. Healthcare practitioners lack comprehensive knowledge regarding vaccination schedules that makes educating adults about these vaccines difficult. The healthcare facilities often lack resources for adult vaccines, making it difficult for individuals to access them as scheduled. Adults remain unknowledgeable about these vaccines, thus the reduced global vaccination rates.

Vaccine-preventable diseases are at times transferred among individuals in close proximity, thus making the unvaccinated individuals at higher risk of contracting these diseases and infecting their families and loved ones at large. Vaccine-preventable disease such as influenza is highly contagious viral infection that affects the nose, throat and lungs and is often deadly in high-risk groups such as the aged, pregnant women, people with chronic diseases, and those with compromised immunities (The American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers, 2017). Influenza vaccines help protect those with compromised immunities so that in case of outbreaks, they remain unaffected, thus improving their quality of life. Vaccines reduce the spread of contagious vaccine-preventable diseases, protecting those with low immunity.

Individuals often reject Adult vaccines due to the myths and misconceptions surrounding the concept, such as the COVID-19 vaccine rumors stating that it is a conspiracy to control global population. Even after the immunization of the global pandemic COVID-19 was discovered, most people have refused to get these vaccinations due to the conspiracy theories that have surfaced on social media platforms and the internet (Ahmed et al., 2018). There are similar conspiracy theories for HPV vaccines in the US where false information concerning adult vaccines exist more than the facts and benefits, leading to a lag in the adult vaccination rate.

Immunization, nutrition, and exercise play a vital role in living a healthy life and promotes graceful ageing. People who practice the three have lower odds of illnesses than those who are not vaccinated, exercise and eat healthy foods. Most health practitioners encourage individuals to maintain healthy eating habits and exercise but fail to educate them about vaccination programs as preventive measures. Leading to low adult vaccination rates as individuals remain unaware of these immunization programs and embrace healthy feeding habits and exercising.

Project Purpose Statement

This report addresses intervention protocols that individuals should adopt to promote adult vaccination rates to reduce morbidity and mortality rates over vaccine-preventable diseases.

Background and Significance

Scientific researchers prove that adult vaccines are safe for use among individuals. Vaccines such as influenza, pneumococcal, whooping cough, hepatitis B, and other vaccine-preventable diseases are scientifically proven to work effectively and offer protection to those with lower immunities against complication, hospitalization and even death. The effectiveness can be compared to the efficacy of child-vaccination programs as they help save children’s lives, boost their immune systems, and lead quality lives. Thus, as people age, they require vaccination to increase their immune response and reduce infection rates and mobility rates among individuals.

Secondly, healthcare facilities should establish proper communication platforms about adult vaccination to ensure that people are educated about the schedules and their importance in society at large. Availing vaccine education among patients seeking medical attention may help them accept immunization as a way to minimize associated complications (Navin et al., 2019). It also offers a chance to change people’s negative mindset regarding vaccinations, thus making it easier for them to embrace it as a way of life, similar to child’s immunization programs. When people are aware and accept these vaccine programs, health facilities should avail these vaccines to all adults regardless of their social class, race or gender. Availing adult vaccine will increase its consumption rates in the US through improving communication platforms regarding the same.

Finally, healthcare systems should provide accurate information to individuals to address myths and misconceptions revolving around adult vaccinations. Details about the working of vaccine and the expected side effects after receiving vaccinations is necessary as it helps people appreciate the facts. Educating individuals will help reduce deaths associated with vaccine-preventable diseases and reduce the financial burden present in healthcare facilities as practitioners treat illnesses that should have been vaccinated (De Villiers et al., 2019). In the long run, educating people will also help improve people’s quality of life as they age and increase overall life expectancy.

PICOT Formatted Clinical Project Questions

Population/Patient

Despite the pharmaceutical technological advancements that have enabled the development of adult and children vaccines, adults more than children are getting vaccine-preventable diseases whereby some end up dead. Most adults are often not aware of these vaccines and their schedules, thus causing high morbidity and mortality rates compared to children. Secondly, as people age, their immunity responses reduces, making them prone to diseases and infections. Therefore, strategies must be put in place to create vaccine awareness among adults to reduce medical complications, illnesses and, in some cases, deaths.

Interventions

To increase adult vaccination rates, it is essential that healthcare practitioners educate individuals on issues concerning adult vaccines and their schedules. Social media is one of the major platforms that will reach a more significant number of adults within a short time. Secondly, healthcare providers should send messages and calls to remind people of their scheduled vaccines as they approach. The third intervention is to create awareness by encouraging vaccines as medical strategies to promote health among adults, where adult vaccinations should be adopted as a lifestyle and not as a treatment measure after an individual is affected. Finally, health practitioners ought to be educated about adult vaccination and its schedule so that they can pass the information to the adult population and recommend areas where they can get these vaccines. Health practitioners interact with patients firsthand and should educate them about these vaccinations. Thus, adults should be educated on the importance of vaccinations to improve global vaccination rates.

Comparison

Vaccines have been developed to help prevent diseases compared to treatment as treatment processes are always time-consuming, tedious, and often not successful, especially among people who have compromised immunities. Adult vaccines were developed to make work easier and improve individuals’ quality of life. However, if people do not consume these vaccines due to lack of knowledge and, in some cases, ignorance, they risk instances of infection and avoidable deaths. Thus, adults should embrace vaccinations to save lives.

Outcome

Creating vaccine awareness among adults through social media platforms, messages and calls, and educating medical practitioners so that they can educate society is likely to increase vaccination rates to reduce deaths and infections caused by vaccine-preventable diseases and improve quality of life among individuals. It is also likely to improve life expectancy as people are vaccinated against most diseases.

Timeframe

The vaccination campaigns and data collection process should take six months to ensure that more people have been educated and have received information about the importance of adult vaccination. Also, the vaccination rates should increase drastically as one of the primary reasons many adults do not receive immunization is a lack of knowledge about its existence. Within six months, the campaign is likely to have reached a significant population to quantify the results based on the data collected.

PICOT Question

What are the intervention protocols that can help increase adult vaccinations and reduce morbidity and motility?

Literature Review

Five research articles were selected to answer the PICOT question to avail intervention protocols to increase adult vaccination rates. These articles are dated later than 2017 and have analyzed specific recommendations to observe its impact on improving adult vaccination. The first article by Hurley et al., (2018) recommends using messages and reminder calls to remind individuals scheduled for vaccinations. The second article by Mark, Giuseppe, & Stefania, (2019) emphasizes advocating for vaccines as medical interventions to promote good health among adults, unlike waiting for people to get infected to use treatments. The third article by Srivastav et al. (2018) emphasizes educating clinicians and pharmacists to educate the patients/adults they interact with within a medical care setup. The fourth article by Prins et al., (2017) advocates for information equality in the US healthcare system. Vaccines are availed in hospitals that are attended by the majority population as well as those in high-social classes. Helping adult vaccines and information in all healthcare facilities are likely to increase adult vaccine rates. Finally, an article by Zimet, & Osazuwa-Peters, (2019) advocates for the use of the internet as a platform to educate people about adult vaccinations.

Critical Appraisal of Literature

The articles selected using the literature review offer relevant information to answer the PICOT question and recommend the intervention protocol for improving the adult vaccination rate. However, these articles have existing gaps that may require further research. In the first article, reminders work best among aged populations above 65 years. Further research may be necessary to identify the reaction of younger individuals (Falcone, Vess, & Johnson, 2020). In the second article, individuals with pre-existing conditions respond better to the recommended intervention strategy than those without pre-existing conditions. In the third, the strategy works best for individuals who visit clinics often compared to their counterparts. The fourth article shows that educating minorities may increase adult vaccination rates in the US. However, the gap between the rich and the poor should be addressed to ensure they are able to access these vaccination facilities. In the fifth article, further education should be issued to the population in social media to help discern the information offered concerning adult vaccines. Information from social media platforms is easily corrupted, thus offering false information to adults searching for accurate data concerning adult vaccination.

Development of an EBP Standard

As seen in the research, vaccinations are an essential aspect of maintaining health among adults and children. Vaccinations help to prevent diseases before they surface. They make life easier by ensuring that high-risk individuals remain safe and healthy even amid pandemics. One of the highly recommended interventions is educating clinicians and other medical practitioners on the importance of the adult vaccine. This way, they can advise the high-risk patients on the importance of vaccines to save lives. The second intervention is the constructive use of social media and the internet as it is the highest source of myths and misconceptions surrounding adult vaccines. Therefore, using these platforms will help neutralize the false information and avail reliable information that will help improve adult vaccination rates. Finally, providing equality in the healthcare sector is an intervention that will ensure that a large population is able to access adult vaccination regardless of their race or social class (Smith, Stalter, & McElroy, 2020). Equality in the healthcare sector allows people to access quality preventive services instead of treatment services that are expensive and time-consuming. These interventions are designed to address different adult populations so that, in the long run, the rate of adult vaccination increases.

Implications

This proposed research project will contribute immensely to the nursing practice. This is because an increase in adult vaccination rates will translate to fewer complication cases in the healthcare facilities, especially complications caused by vaccine-preventable diseases. Nurses interact directly with patients, and when they handle less complicated cases, they are able to offer quality services and maintain their mental health. The proposed research project allows an accurate data collection process in education platforms by properly selecting articles that provide precise information to answer the PICOT question. The articles collected entail exact data collection processes and literature review processes crucial in the education sector. Finally, the proposal impacts positively nursing research as the field comprises research activities to analyze human behaviour and the importance of medical stability in any society (Smith, Stalter, & McElroy, 2020). Nursing research also revolves around literature review to collect accurate data that may be useful in nursing practice. The research project proposal offers multiple benefits in education, nursing research, and nursing practice. It provides a valuable framework that identifies the importance of adult vaccination in promoting healthy living among individuals and especially the aged and those at high risk of infection vaccine-preventable diseases.

References

Ahmed, N., Quinn, S. C., Hancock, G. R., Freimuth, V. S., & Jamison, A. (2018). Social media use and influenza vaccine uptake among White and African American adults. Vaccine36(49), 7556-7561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.049

De Villiers, P. J., Steele, A. D., Hiemstra, L. A., Rappaport, R., Dunning, A. J., Gruber, W. C., Forrest, B. D., & LAIV Elderly Study Trial Network (2019). Efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine in adults 60 years of age and older. Vaccine28(1), 228–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.092

Falcone, A. L., Vess, J., & Johnson, E. (2020). Evidence-based interventions cause multifold increase of influenza immunization rates in a free clinic. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners32(12), 817–823. https://doi.org/10.1097/JXX.0000000000000302

Hurley, L. P., Beaty, B., Lockhart, S., Gurfinkel, D., Breslin, K., Dickinson, M., Whittington, M. D., Roth, H., & Kempe, A. (2018). RCT of Centralized Vaccine Reminder/Recall for Adults. American journal of preventive medicine55(2), 231–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.022

Navarro-Torné, A., Curcio, D., Moïsi, J. C., & Jodar, L. (2021). Burden of invasive group B Streptococcus disease in non-pregnant adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one16(9), e0258030.

Navin, M. C., Wasserman, J. A., Ahmad, M., & Bies, S. (2019). Vaccine education, reasons for refusal, and vaccination behavior. American journal of preventive medicine56(3), 359-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.024

Prins, W., Butcher, E., Hall, L. L., Puckrein, G., & Rosof, B. (2017). Improving adult immunization equity: Where do the published research literature and existing resources lead?. Vaccine35(23), 3020–3025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.02.016

  1. Mark Doherty, Giuseppe Del Giudice & Stefania Maggi (2019) Adult vaccination as part of a healthy lifestyle: moving from medical intervention to health promotion, Annals of Medicine, 51:2, 128-140, Doi: 10.1080/07853890.2019.1588470

The American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers (2017). The safety of inactivated influenza vaccine in adults and children with asthma. The New England journal of medicine345(21), 1529–1536. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa011961

Smith, S. D., Stalter, A. M., & McElroy, K. G. (2020). Association of Community Health Nursing Educators’, 2020 evidence-based project priorities: A national blueprint for unifying research and evidence-based practice priorities. Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.)37(5), 778–788. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12763

Srivastav, A., Black, C. L., Lutz, C. S., Fiebelkorn, A. P., Ball, S. W., Devlin, R., Pabst, L. J., Williams, W. W., & Kim, D. K. (2018). U.S. clinicians’ and pharmacists’ reported barriers to implementation of the Standards for Adult Immunization Practice. Vaccine36(45), 6772–6781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.09.024

Zimet, G. D., & Osazuwa-Peters, N. (2019). There’s Much Yet to be Done: Diverse Perspectives on HPV Vaccination. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics15(7-8), 1459–1464. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1640559

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