Part 1: Introduction and Problem Statement
The purpose of assignments Part 1 – Part 3 is to gradually guide the student in developing the signature assignment. The idea is for the student to take a stepwise approach to completing the signature assignment. The signature assignment will be broken up into three steps: STEP 1 – Introduction and Overview of the Problem; STEP 2 – Project Purpose Statement, Background & Significance and PICOt Formatted Clinical Project Question; and STEP 3 – Literature Review and Critical Appraisal of the Literature. The three steps, when completed, will be combined in the final Signature Assignment formal paper in Week 8.
This week’s assignment is STEP 1 – Introduction and Problem Statement.
First, the student will select a clinical question from the Approved List of PICOt/Clinical Questions or seek approval for a question from the course professor only for Nurse Educator and Health Care Leadership MSN majors who wish to tailor their research question to their specialized major. The student will select an approved topic from the list (or with faculty approval as previously stated) and will customize the question to meet his or her interest.
Next, the student will use the outline below and submit via a Word doc to the assignment link.
- Provide a title that conveys or describes the assignment.
- Introduction – Provide an introduction to your topic or project. The introduction gives the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the project will cover and what can be gained from implementation of this project.
- Overview of the Problem – Provide a synopsis of the problem and some indication of why the problem is worth exploring or what contribution the proposed project is apt to make to practice.
- References – Cite references using APA 7th ed. Manual.
Approved Clinical Questions For PICOt Development List
Implementing a clinical practice protocol/guideline for the management of [hypertension or disease] in [the homeless or population/clinic type]
Developing a clinical protocol to prevent [community acquired pneumonia or disease] in [vulnerable populations] in primary care
Identifying barriers to [diabetic treatment or disease or health promotion] adherence in a community primary care clinic
An educational program to improve [influenza and/or pneumococcal or type] vaccination rates among [population]
Evaluation of an intervention protocol to improve adult vaccination rates among [older adults or population]
Primary care providers’ adherence to treatment guidelines for the management of [Type II diabetes or disease] in a [rural or type] clinic
The implementation of a clinical protocol to identify and manage [COPD or disease] in [the working poor or vulnerable population or setting]
Evaluation on implementing [smoking cessation or disease prevention/health promotion] primary clinic in long-term care
Improvement of screening rates for [sexually transmitted diseases or disease prevention targets] in a primary care clinic
Implementing a peer review process in a primary care clinic or setting
The effectiveness of implementing the [Geriatric Depression Scale or standardized assessment instrument] for the treatment and management of [depression or disease] in primary care
Evaluating the use of computer reminder systems for providers to improve treatment guideline adherence in [community care or setting]
Screening for mild cognitive impairment in a primary care setting
Primary care provider practice patterns for the treatment and management of [pain or disease] in [older adults or population]
Effectiveness of obesity management strategies in [working adults or population] with [cardiac risk factors or disease] in primary care
The impact of the Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner’s role in a healthcare home model
Identification of perceived barriers to care of [women or population] seeking treatment for [depression or disease] in primary care
Culturally sensitive care for [Asian Americans or population] seeking treatment for chronic [hypertension or disease] management in primary care
Barriers and facilitators to implementing a culturally sensitive clinical protocol in [Hispanic men or population] with [prostate cancer or disease]
Evaluation of [cost or type] outcomes of a primary care model that includes a psychiatric-mental health care nurse practitioner overlay service
Development of a [cardiac or disease/type] risk profile to identify high risk [women or population] in primary care
Effective [ADHD/Other] Screening of Children in the Primary Care Setting
Reducing BMI of Overweight and Obese [Children or population]: Evidence-Based Approach
Expedited Partner Therapy: An Option in the Treatment of [Genital Chlamydial Infection or other STI]
Effectiveness of the Use of Insulin [pens/pump]: An Analysis of the [Hispanic adult or population] Patient’s Satisfaction and Outcomes
An Effective Plan to Reduce Polypharmacy in a [State Prison or Long-term Care Facility]
The Role of Reminder Cards and Telephone Follow -Up on Office Visits on Adherence of Patient with [T2DM or other chronic disease]
Effects on A1C among Insulin Managed Diabetic Patients following an Electronic, Patient-Centered, Feedback System: An Evidence-Based Practice
The Effect of Language in the Delivery of Care in [Home Health or other community setting]
The Effect of Culture and Eating Habits on [Childhood or population] Obesity in [United States or state]
The Effectiveness of [Basic Daily Monitoring or other intervention] for [Elderly or population] with Heart Failure to Reduce Hospital Readmission
Adherence to Diet and Exercise to Reduce Hyperlipidemia in [Adults or population]
Evidence-Based Practice in Management of Acute Otitis Media: Topical versus Systemic Treatments
[Walking 3x/week or Other exercise activity] for 45-minutes Reduce Blood Sugar levels in [African- Americans or population] with Type II Diabetes
Implement a [Brisk Physical Activity or other activity} to Improve BS Levels in [Women with GDM or population]?
Asthma Treatment in Pediatric Patients: Spacer versus Conventional Inhaler
Concurrent use of Probiotics during Antibiotic Therapy Reduce the Incidence of Developing Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea
The Role of Nurse Practitioner in the [Breast Cancer Risk Assessment or other Assessment] on [Hispanic Women or populations]
Brain Exercise Reduce the Cognitive Decline in Patients with [Cognitive Decline or population]
Measuring the Effectiveness of 5-2-1-0 every day to Reduce Obesity in [Children or population]
Spiritual Care: The Missing Link in Health Care Among Patients with [Advanced Cancer in Palliative Care or population]
Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioner’s Home Visits in Improving Patient Adherence in the Management of [Hypertension or population]
Nurse Practitioner’s Focus Patient Education to Prevent Complications of [Pre-eclampsia or population]
Providing Education to [Reduce Hb1Ac or Other measure] in Adherence with Current [Diabetes or other chronic disease] Guidelines
Utilization of Nurse Practitioners in the [Emergency Department or other Community Settings] on Patient Satisfaction, Provider to Patient time, and Length of Stay
Use of NP-led Triage Orders in Emergency Department for Early Patient’s Discharge
Screening of Patients with Drug-Seeking Behaviors in [Emergency Department or other Community Setting]
Developing an Education-based Approach to Increase Awareness on [Prostate Cancer or other] Screening
Reducing [HPV or other preventable disease] Incidences with Vaccination among the [Latino Population ages 11-26 in the United States or population]
Evaluate the Effectiveness Of Post-Discharge Follow-Up Among [Congestive Heart Failure or high-risk population] Patients on Reduction of Hospital Readmission, Improve Quality Of Life, Medication Reconciliation, Self-Care Skills and Coordination of Care During Transition to Home [Other]
Primary Care Provider Practice Patterns for the Identification, Treatment, and Management of [early onset sepsis disease or other disease] in [pediatric or populations]
Evaluation on Implementing and Follow-up with Health Screening Guidelines [Colonoscopy or other Screening] in a Primary Clinic or other Community Setting
Primary Care Provider Practice Patterns for the Treatment and Management Follow-up after UC or ED visit in [older adults or population]
Barriers and facilitators to implementing a culturally sensitive clinical protocol in [refugee men or population] with [depression or other chronic disease]
Expert Answer and Explanation
Vaccination Awareness Among Adults
Vaccination is among the crucial health procedures that keeps humanity away from the risk of deadly illnesses. With the invention of vaccines, mortality from diseases such as measles, tetanus, polio, pneumonia, and meningitis has significantly reduced. Vaccines help the immune system to build a strong defense against a given illness before coming into contact with the disease-causing agent. According to World Health Organization, vaccination saves above four million lives annually (Bloom et al., 2017). Though vaccination is commonly administered to children, even adults should be vaccinated. Adult vaccination is important because childhood vaccines can wear off with time, leaving adults prone to illnesses. Also, they can spread the disease to prone individuals. The Internet can help improve adult vaccine awareness and, in turn, improve the vaccination rate among adults.
Overview of the Problem
Most adults are ignorant of the vaccines recommended for them. As a result, they are not updated with vaccination which leaves them at risk of vaccine-preventable illnesses. With the increase in age, the body’s immune system weakens, and if they contract these diseases, it could be life-threatening. Most diseases and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases occur in adults (Ohfuji et al., 2019). Vaccine-preventable diseases can be passed from one person to another, and if adults fail to take vaccines, they could put the lives of their loved ones at risk.
Adults are familiar with vaccines such as the influenza vaccine, whose level of awareness is high. However, they do not know about other vaccines, such as measles, mumps, tetanus, hepatitis A and B, papillomavirus, rubella, and diphtheria. There is a need for adults to know about these other vaccines for the benefit of their health (Alison et at., 2018). Lack of awareness could lead to an outbreak that could affect the entire population. To prevent such occurences, it is necessary to educate adults about these vaccines to avoid risking other people’s lives.
Patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes are prone to other infections. Their immune system is weakened, and this exposes them to other diseases. For such patients, contracting vaccine-preventable diseases could put their health under strain. Having such patients well informed of the vaccination options they have could help them improve their health. Also, it helps to avoid complications and give the patients a longer life span.
Many adults are hesitant to embrace vaccination. The lack of proper understanding of vaccines increases the resistance to be vaccinated. For example, many people have expressed their disapproval of the coronavirus vaccine. Many hold onto mythical beliefs about vaccines, making it hard for health professionals to counter the disease (Dror., 2020). Having awareness protocols to address the public fears concerning the vaccine can help change the attitude towards vaccination. There is a necessity to address these fears because a lack of participation from the public could make efforts to combat the disease unproductive and risk the lives of many people.
Vaccination, diet, and exercise contribute to healthy adult life and transitioning to old age. Individuals who take part in the triad have few health complications and tend to live longer. However, there is a lower vaccination coverage, which adversely impacts the efforts to promote healthy living. Among the factors promoting inadequate vaccination coverage is the lack of awareness which is possible to address (Serra et al., 2021). A well-informed public about vaccination will clearly understand the recommended vaccines and consistently follow up based on their health, age, and lifestyle.
In today’s world, technology has made it easy to transmit information. The use of the Internet can help solve the problem of vaccine awareness. The Internet has become a fundamental tool in the day to day activities. Ignorance about vaccination contributes to low vaccination rates among adults (Lu et al., 2017). However, with the help of the Internet is possible to reach out to many adults and offer the lacking information about vaccination. Holding Internet campaigns with slogans to sensitize the public is one way that can work. Health professions and health organization bodies can join together to push for the campaigns. Also, holding online meetings to address vaccination topics and vaccination questions from adults can promote awareness. Information is power. If the public gains knowledge about the vaccines, the next step will be to avail the vaccines.
Lack of vaccination knowledge among adults is a significant factor contributing to low vaccine coverage. The use of the Internet can play an essential role in helping adults become more knowledgeable about vaccines. They will know the recommended vaccines, their importance, and the need to be consistent in taking them. Also, there will be less resistance to vaccination. An improved vaccination rate among adults will improve health and reduce the mortality rate related to vaccine-preventable diseases.
Allison, M., Musser, B., Satterwhite, C., Ault, K., Kelly, P., & Ramaswamy, M. (2018). Human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge and intention among adult inmates in Kansas, 2016–2017. American journal of public health, 108(8), 1000-1002. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304499
Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Weston, M. (2017). The value of vaccination. In Fighting the Diseases of Poverty (pp. 214-238). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780203791950-8/value-vaccination-david-bloom-david-canning-mark-weston
Dror, A. A., Eisenbach, N., Taiber, S., Morozov, N. G., Mizrachi, M., Zigron, A., … & Sela, E. (2020). Vaccine hesitancy: the next challenge in the fight against COVID-19. European journal of epidemiology, 35(8), 775-779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00671-y
Lu, P. J., O’Halloran, A., Kennedy, E. D., Williams, W. W., Kim, D., Fiebelkorn, A. P., … & Bridges, C. B. (2017). Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015. Vaccine, 35(23), 3104-3115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.04.028
Ohfuji, S., Ito, K., Inoue, M., Ishibashi, M., Kumashiro, H., Hirota, Y., … & Ota, N. (2019). Safety of live attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine in patients with underlying illnesses compared with healthy adults: a prospective cohort study. BMC infectious diseases, 19(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3719-7
Serra, F. B., Ribeiro, D., Batista, P. M., & Moreira, T. N. (2021). Adult vaccination in Brazil: a cross-sectional survey on physicians’ prescription habits. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.02.21251016
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