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[ANSWERED] Select one of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak across international borders

COMPETENCIES

7019.1.3 : Community Advocacy

The graduate develops culturally sensitive and relevant strategies to advocate for populations, based on knowledge of community health systems.

7019.1.4 : Community Health Promotion

The graduate proposes health promotion initiatives and services to promote disease and injury prevention.

7019.1.6 : Global Health

The graduate analyzes past and present initiatives meant to improve the health of the global community.

7019.1.7 : Emergency Response

The graduate plans for the preparation, response, and recovery of communities from natural and human-caused emergencies and disasters.

7019.1.9 : Communicable Disease

The graduate analyzes the impact of communicable diseases on the health of individuals, families, and communities in a global environment.

INTRODUCTION

With the increased mobility of human populations, diseases can quickly spread around the world. In addition, changes in vaccination practices have revealed an increase in communicable diseases that were once thought to be under control. These global health issues present new problems for community health officials.

In the Bentonville simulation, you learned how an influenza virus impacted the community. You will provide a PDF report of your completed activities.

In this task, you will also analyze an outbreak of a specific global communicable disease that occurred in the last 50 years that crossed international borders (e.g., the measles outbreak that moved from the Philippines to the United States).

REQUIREMENTS

Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide

You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course. 

A.  Select one of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak across international borders:

•  influenza

•  measles

•  respiratory syndrome coronavirus

•  meningococcal disease

•  HIV/AIDS

•  Ebola virus

•  hepatitis B

•  hepatitis C

•  tuberculosis

•  Zika virus

B.  Describe the outbreak of the disease selected in part A, including each of the following:

•  the name of the disease

•  the country where the outbreak originated and the date it was first discovered

•  the other countries involved and the date the outbreak reached each country

1.  Analyze the epidemiological determinants and risk factors associated with the outbreak.

2.  Discuss the route of transmission of the selected disease.

3.  Discuss how an outbreak of the selected disease would impact your community at a systems level (e.g., the functioning of schools, local government, businesses, hospitals).

4.  Explain what the reporting protocol would be if an outbreak of the selected disease were to occur in your community.

5.  Discuss two strategies (e.g., patient education strategies, community education strategies) that you would recommend to prevent an outbreak of the selected disease in your community.

C.  Submit a PDF of your score summary from Bentonville that includes each of the following completed activities:

•  Influenza in Bentonville

•  Community Advocacy

•  Emergency Response

•  Communicable Disease
Note: For an example of how your score sheet should look, refer to the attached “Sample Final Results Report: Influenza in Bentonville.”
D.  Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

E.  Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.
Expert Answer and Explanation

Community Outbreak

Infectious diseases can have a high impact on the nature in which communities interact with each other. Communicable outbreaks interfere with daily activities and lead to strain within the healthcare system. Communities are at high risk when diseases can easily transfer from one person to another through physical activities such as body contact, touching, talking, or exchange of bodily fluids (Kaner & Schaak, 2016). These attributes constitute the majority of the daily activities that people have to engage in for survival. Diseases that impede the process can increase the rate of transmission, and overall infection. This paper will address an outbreak of a communicable disease by focusing on the transmission, risk factors, and prevention measures.

Communicable Disease

From the provided list, this paper will focus on the overview of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) which is also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. As a disease, EVD can be viewed as a zoonotic disease that makes the victim experience severe hemorrhagic fever and septic shock (CDC, 2021). In the event of an outbreak, EVD can easily be transmitted to another person through contact or exchange in bodily fluid. The severity of the disease is rapid and can lead to death within a limited timeframe.

Description of Outbreak

While the occurrence of EVD is rare globally, one of the most notable outbreaks was the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak that occurred in West Africa (CDC, 2019). From the discovery of the disease in 1979, the 2014-2016 outbreak that occurred in West Africa is considered to be one of the most prevalent. The disease was first reported in Guinea and later spread to the neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia due to the mobility of people. The first case was from an 18-year-old boy who was believed to have contracted the virus from bats (CDC, 2019). At the time, the people were not aware o the disease and dismissed it as normal flu. However, the diseases spread fast and the death rates were also increasing at an exponential rate. The government was forced to issue a medical alert and conduct tests to later identify the disease as the Zaire ebolavirus variant. Following the discovery and the then-current death of 29 individuals within the 49 confirmed cases, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of the disease in early 2014. As of July 2014, the outbreak had already spread to the capital cities of the three countries and the spread was continuing from a single isolated case to a widespread epidemic. By the end of the three years of the outbreak, the diseases affected seven countries including Mali, Nigeria, the UK, the USA, Italy, Spain, and Senegal (Kamorudeen et al., 2020).

Epidemiological Determinations and Risk Factors

The distribution of epidemiology of EVD in West Africa can be attributed to the increased movement of people from one region to the other. At the beginning of the virus, businesses were operating normally and regional movement continued with no mitigation measures being put in place (Lamunu et al., 2017). The movements from one region to the other and the low anticipation for a breakout were the main factors that led to the high incidence rates of the outbreak (Lamunu et al., 2017). The countries affected were not prepared for the disease and it took additional time to assemble a team of professionals and enforce mitigation measures.

Route Of Transmission

The main method that EVD used to move from one person to the other is through direct physical contact. When a person comes into contact with an infected individual, they risk interacting with the bodily fluid of the infected person and contracting the disease (Wonderly et al., 2019). The disease is also transferable after the person dies which makes it hard to also interact with victims of the disease even after they die.

Impact of EVD on the Community

EVD is a communicable disease an outbreak would lead to widespread disarray, economic sabotage, and inhibit how the community interacts. For instance, the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa led to high incidence rates which increased the number of patients the needed the limited number of medical resources. Painter et al. (2018) contend that schools had to be stopped, and any other activity that would increase the risk of physical contact was stopped. These interventions had a cumulative negative impact on the community which interfered with the quality of life as well as psychological and psychosocial wellness.

Reporting Protocol

Ebola disease is among the leading most severe communicable disease that needs to be identified and stopped before it spreads to other regions. In this regard, the reporting protocol of the disease is in line with the requirements put in place by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021). Countries have to adhere to the reporting protocol where patients need to visit their healthcare facilities who will in turn report the issue to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) (‌Graham et al., 2018). The country needs to sensitize the communities on the symptoms who would then help identify the disease on time and prevent the spread. These strategies are effective in ensuring that all the required processes are put in place and any incident is made aware to help manage the spread.

Prevention Strategies of EVD

The main prevention mechanisms that can be used to prevent the spread of Ebola is through community sensitization the community needs to be made aware of the early symptoms and the need to seek medical attention. Similarly, the use of vaccines and personal protective equipment (masks) can help with the prevention of the disease (‌Graham et al., 2018). The use of vaccines is important for mitigating the individuals that encounter accidental exposure and thus limiting how each person overcomes the issue at hand. The vaccines also ensure that the rate of spread is limited to a specific number. On the other hand, community awareness can ensure the population is aware of possible symptoms and how to report the issue should they identify that they are demonstrating similar symptoms. The strategies of prevention can ensure the disease is mitigated and the impact is within a manageable threshold.

Conclusion

This paper addressed the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa by focusing on the transmission, risk factors, and prevention measures. Ebola disease is one of the most severe communicable diseases due to the nature in which it spreads and how it affects the patient. Communities need to be sensitized to the risk factors, and how to prevent contracting the disease. Proper communication channels need to be established and ensure the community is provided with information on how they can report any incidences as they occur. Healthcare facilities need to also exercise preparedness to prevent the impact that the disease would have on the community.

References

CDC. (2019). 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html

CDC. (2021). 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html

‌Graham, J. E., Lees, S., Le Marcis, F., Faye, S. L., Lorway, R. R., Ronse, M., … & Grietens, K. P. (2018). Prepared for the ‘unexpected’? Lessons from the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa on integrating emergent theory designs into outbreak response. BMJ global health3(4), e000990.

Kamorudeen, R. T., Adedokun, K. A., & Olarinmoye, A. O. (2020). Ebola outbreak in West Africa, 2014–2016: Epidemic timeline, differential diagnoses, determining factors, and lessons for future response. Journal of Infection and Public Health13(7), 956-962.

Kaner J., & Schaak S. (2016). Understanding Ebola: the 2014 Epidemic. Globalization and Health. 12(53).

Lamunu, M., Olu, O. O., Bangura, J., Yoti, Z., Samba, T. T., Kargbo, D. K., Dafae, F. M., Raja, M. A., Sempira, N., Ivan, M. L., Sing, A., Kurti-George, F., Worku, N., Mitula, P., Ganda, L., Samupindi, R., Conteh, R., Kamara, K.-B., Muraguri, B., & Kposowa, M. (2017). Epidemiology of Ebola Virus Disease in the Western Area Region of Sierra Leone, 2014–2015. Frontiers in Public Health5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00033

Painter, J. E., von Fricken, M. E., Viana de O. Mesquita, S., & DiClemente, R. J. (2018). Willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine during the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Results from a US National sample. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics14(7), 1665-1671.

Wonderly, B., Jones, S., Gatton, M. L., Barber, J., Killip, M., Hudson, C., … & Boehme, C. (2019). Comparative performance of four rapid Ebola antigen-detection lateral flow immunoassays during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. PLoS One14(3), e0212113.

WHO. (2021, February 23). Ebola virus disease. Who.int; World Health Organization: WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

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