Last Updated on May 4, 2023 by Admin
Select one of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak across international borders:
Select one of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak
7019.1.3 : Community Advocacy
The graduate develops culturally sensitive and relevant strategies to advocate for populations, based on knowledge of community health systems.
7019.1.4 : Community Health Promotion
The graduate proposes health promotion initiatives and services to promote disease and injury prevention.
7019.1.6 : Global Health
The graduate analyzes past and present initiatives meant to improve the health of the global community.
7019.1.7 : Emergency Response
The graduate plans for the preparation, response, and recovery of communities from natural and human-caused emergencies and disasters.
7019.1.9 : Communicable Disease
The graduate analyzes the impact of communicable diseases on the health of individuals, families, and communities in a global environment.
With the increased mobility of human populations, diseases can quickly spread around the world. In addition, changes in vaccination practices have revealed an increase in communicable diseases that were once thought to be under control. These global health issues present new problems for community health officials.
In the Bentonville simulation, you learned how an influenza virus impacted the community. You will provide a PDF report of your completed activities.
In this task, you will also analyze an outbreak of a specific global communicable disease that occurred in the last 50 years that crossed international borders (e.g., the measles outbreak that moved from the Philippines to the United States).
Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide
You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.
A. Select one of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak across international borders:
• respiratory syndrome coronavirus
• meningococcal disease
• Ebola virus
• hepatitis B
• hepatitis C
• Zika virus
B. Describe the outbreak of the disease selected in part A, including each of the following:
• the name of the disease
• the country where the outbreak originated and the date it was first discovered
• the other countries involved and the date the outbreak reached each country
1. Analyze the epidemiological determinants and risk factors associated with the outbreak.
2. Discuss the route of transmission of the selected disease.
3. Discuss how an outbreak of the selected disease would impact your community at a systems level (e.g., the functioning of schools, local government, businesses, hospitals).
4. Explain what the reporting protocol would be if an outbreak of the selected disease were to occur in your community.
5. Discuss two strategies (e.g., patient education strategies, community education strategies) that you would recommend to prevent an outbreak of the selected disease in your community.
C. Submit a PDF of your score summary from Bentonville that includes each of the following completed activities:
• Influenza in Bentonville
• Community Advocacy
• Emergency Response
• Communicable Disease
Note: For an example of how your score sheet should look, refer to the attached “Sample Final Results Report: Influenza in Bentonville.”
D. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Infectious diseases can have a high impact on the nature in which communities interact with each other. Communicable outbreaks interfere with daily activities and lead to strain within the healthcare system. Communities are at high risk when diseases can easily transfer from one person to another through physical activities such as body contact, touching, talking, or exchange of bodily fluids (Kaner & Schaak, 2016).
These attributes constitute the majority of the daily activities that people have to engage in for survival. Diseases that impede the process can increase the rate of transmission, and overall infection. This paper will address an outbreak of a communicable disease by focusing on the transmission, risk factors, and prevention measures.
From the provided list, this paper will focus on the overview of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) which is also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. As a disease, EVD can be viewed as a zoonotic disease that makes the victim experience severe hemorrhagic fever and septic shock (CDC, 2021). In the event of an outbreak, EVD can easily be transmitted to another person through contact or exchange in bodily fluid. The severity of the disease is rapid and can lead to death within a limited timeframe.
Description of Outbreak
While the occurrence of EVD is rare globally, one of the most notable outbreaks was the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak that occurred in West Africa (CDC, 2019). From the discovery of the disease in 1979, the 2014-2016 outbreak that occurred in West Africa is considered to be one of the most prevalent. The disease was first reported in Guinea and later spread to the neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia due to the mobility of people. The first case was from an 18-year-old boy who was believed to have contracted the virus from bats (CDC, 2019). At the time, the people were not aware o the disease and dismissed it as normal flu.
However, the diseases spread fast and the death rates were also increasing at an exponential rate. The government was forced to issue a medical alert and conduct tests to later identify the disease as the Zaire ebolavirus variant. Following the discovery and the then-current death of 29 individuals within the 49 confirmed cases, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of the disease in early 2014.
As of July 2014, the outbreak had already spread to the capital cities of the three countries and the spread was continuing from a single isolated case to a widespread epidemic. By the end of the three years of the outbreak, the diseases affected seven countries including Mali, Nigeria, the UK, the USA, Italy, Spain, and Senegal (Kamorudeen et al., 2020).
Epidemiological Determinations and Risk Factors
The distribution of epidemiology of EVD in West Africa can be attributed to the increased movement of people from one region to the other. At the beginning of the virus, businesses were operating normally and regional movement continued with no mitigation measures being put in place (Lamunu et al., 2017). The movements from one region to the other and the low anticipation for a breakout were the main factors that led to the high incidence rates of the outbreak (Lamunu et al., 2017). The countries affected were not prepared for the disease and it took additional time to assemble a team of professionals and enforce mitigation measures.
Route Of Transmission
The main method that EVD used to move from one person to the other is through direct physical contact. When a person comes into contact with an infected individual, they risk interacting with the bodily fluid of the infected person and contracting the disease (Wonderly et al., 2019). The disease is also transferable after the person dies which makes it hard to also interact with victims of the disease even after they die.
Impact of EVD on the Community
EVD is a communicable disease an outbreak would lead to widespread disarray, economic sabotage, and inhibit how the community interacts. For instance, the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa led to high incidence rates which increased the number of patients the needed the limited number of medical resources. Painter et al. (2018) contend that schools had to be stopped, and any other activity that would increase the risk of physical contact was stopped. These interventions had a cumulative negative impact on the community which interfered with the quality of life as well as psychological and psychosocial wellness.
Ebola disease is among the leading most severe communicable disease that needs to be identified and stopped before it spreads to other regions. In this regard, the reporting protocol of the disease is in line with the requirements put in place by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021). Countries have to adhere to the reporting protocol where patients need to visit their healthcare facilities who will in turn report the issue to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) (Graham et al., 2018).
The country needs to sensitize the communities on the symptoms who would then help identify the disease on time and prevent the spread. These strategies are effective in ensuring that all the required processes are put in place and any incident is made aware to help manage the spread.
Prevention Strategies of EVD
The main prevention mechanisms that can be used to prevent the spread of Ebola is through community sensitization the community needs to be made aware of the early symptoms and the need to seek medical attention. Similarly, the use of vaccines and personal protective equipment (masks) can help with the prevention of the disease (Graham et al., 2018). The use of vaccines is important for mitigating the individuals that encounter accidental exposure and thus limiting how each person overcomes the issue at hand.
The vaccines also ensure that the rate of spread is limited to a specific number. On the other hand, community awareness can ensure the population is aware of possible symptoms and how to report the issue should they identify that they are demonstrating similar symptoms. The strategies of prevention can ensure the disease is mitigated and the impact is within a manageable threshold.
This paper addressed the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa by focusing on the transmission, risk factors, and prevention measures. Ebola disease is one of the most severe communicable diseases due to the nature in which it spreads and how it affects the patient. Communities need to be sensitized to the risk factors, and how to prevent contracting the disease. Proper communication channels need to be established and ensure the community is provided with information on how they can report any incidences as they occur. Healthcare facilities need to also exercise preparedness to prevent the impact that the disease would have on the community.
CDC. (2019). 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html
CDC. (2021). 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html
Graham, J. E., Lees, S., Le Marcis, F., Faye, S. L., Lorway, R. R., Ronse, M., … & Grietens, K. P. (2018). Prepared for the ‘unexpected’? Lessons from the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa on integrating emergent theory designs into outbreak response. BMJ global health, 3(4), e000990.
Kamorudeen, R. T., Adedokun, K. A., & Olarinmoye, A. O. (2020). Ebola outbreak in West Africa, 2014–2016: Epidemic timeline, differential diagnoses, determining factors, and lessons for future response. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(7), 956-962.
Kaner J., & Schaak S. (2016). Understanding Ebola: the 2014 Epidemic. Globalization and Health. 12(53).
Lamunu, M., Olu, O. O., Bangura, J., Yoti, Z., Samba, T. T., Kargbo, D. K., Dafae, F. M., Raja, M. A., Sempira, N., Ivan, M. L., Sing, A., Kurti-George, F., Worku, N., Mitula, P., Ganda, L., Samupindi, R., Conteh, R., Kamara, K.-B., Muraguri, B., & Kposowa, M. (2017). Epidemiology of Ebola Virus Disease in the Western Area Region of Sierra Leone, 2014–2015. Frontiers in Public Health, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00033
Painter, J. E., von Fricken, M. E., Viana de O. Mesquita, S., & DiClemente, R. J. (2018). Willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine during the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Results from a US National sample. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 14(7), 1665-1671.
Wonderly, B., Jones, S., Gatton, M. L., Barber, J., Killip, M., Hudson, C., … & Boehme, C. (2019). Comparative performance of four rapid Ebola antigen-detection lateral flow immunoassays during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. PLoS One, 14(3), e0212113.
WHO. (2021, February 23). Ebola virus disease. Who.int; World Health Organization: WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease
Ebola: The Deadly Virus and its Impact on Health and Society
Ebola is a highly infectious virus that can cause severe illness in humans and animals. It was first identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976, and since then, there have been several outbreaks in African countries. The virus is known to spread rapidly and can cause life-threatening symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever and organ failure. In this article, we will discuss the origins of Ebola, its symptoms, modes of transmission, and the impact it has had on society.
Ebola is a highly infectious and deadly virus that has caused several outbreaks in Africa. The virus is known to spread rapidly and can cause severe illness in humans and animals. Over the years, Ebola has become a significant public health concern due to its high mortality rate and potential for global spread.
Origins of Ebola
Ebola was first identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 during an outbreak in a village near the Ebola River, from which the virus got its name. The virus is believed to have originated from fruit bats, which are natural hosts for the virus. Ebola can also be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals such as primates, antelopes, and porcupines.
Symptoms of Ebola
Ebola virus can cause severe illness in humans, with symptoms ranging from fever, headache, muscle pain, and weakness to more severe symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and organ failure. The symptoms of Ebola can appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to the virus.
Modes of Transmission
Ebola can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact with bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, vomit, and feces of an infected person. The virus can also be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects such as needles and syringes. Health care workers who are in direct contact with Ebola patients are at high risk of contracting the virus.
Treatment and Prevention of Ebola
Currently, there is no specific treatment or cure for Ebola, and treatment is mainly supportive care, such as fluids, electrolytes, and medications to control symptoms. Prevention of Ebola includes avoiding contact with infected individuals, wearing protective clothing such as gloves, masks, and gowns, and following proper hygiene practices such as handwashing.
Impact of Ebola on Health
Ebola outbreaks have had a significant impact on public health, with high mortality rates and a potential for global spread. In addition to the direct impact on health, Ebola outbreaks have also resulted in disruptions in health care systems and the diversion of resources from other public health priorities.
Impact of Ebola on Society
Ebola outbreaks have had a significant impact on society, with fear and stigma associated with the disease leading to social and economic disruption. Communities affected by Ebola have experienced loss of livelihoods, reduced access to education and health care, and a breakdown in social cohesion.
Economic Impact of Ebola
Ebola outbreaks have had significant economic impacts on affected countries, with disruptions in trade, tourism, and investment. The economic impact of Ebola can be long-lasting, with some estimates suggesting that it could take years for affected countries to recover fully.
Ebola and Global Health Security
Ebola outbreaks have highlighted the importance of global health security, with the potential for the virus to spread beyond borders. The international community has recognized the need for a coordinated response to Ebola outbreaks and other infectious diseases to prevent their spread and reduce their impact.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a critical role in responding to Ebola outbreaks, providing technical guidance and support to affected countries. In addition, the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) was launched in 2014 to improve global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats.
The GHSA is a collaborative effort between the WHO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other international partners to promote global health security through capacity building, risk assessment, and preparedness planning. The GHSA has helped to strengthen health systems in affected countries and improve coordination among international partners.
Lessons Learned from Ebola Outbreaks
Ebola outbreaks have taught us valuable lessons about the importance of early detection, rapid response, and community engagement. The early detection of cases and prompt response can help to contain the spread of the virus and reduce its impact on public health.
Community engagement is critical in preventing the spread of Ebola, as communities affected by the virus often face stigma and fear. Building trust between health care workers and communities is essential in promoting cooperation and effective response.
Current Status of Ebola
Since the first Ebola outbreak in 1976, there have been several outbreaks in African countries, with the most recent outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 2018-2020. As of May 2023, there are no active Ebola outbreaks.
Future Outlook for Ebola
Despite the absence of active Ebola outbreaks, the threat of Ebola and other infectious diseases remains a global concern. Continued investment in global health security and preparedness is critical in preventing and responding to future outbreaks.
Research into new treatments and vaccines for Ebola is ongoing, with several promising candidates in development. However, the development and deployment of new treatments and vaccines will require sustained investment and collaboration among international partners.
Misconceptions About Ebola
There are several misconceptions about Ebola that have contributed to fear and stigma associated with the virus. One common misconception is that Ebola is easily transmitted through casual contact, which is not the case. Ebola is only transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids of an infected person or animal.
Another misconception is that all Ebola cases result in hemorrhagic fever and death, which is not accurate. While some cases of Ebola can result in severe illness, not all cases are fatal, and many individuals have recovered from the virus.
Ebola is a highly infectious and deadly virus that has had a significant impact on public health and society. The response to Ebola outbreaks has highlighted the importance of global health security and the need for a coordinated response to infectious disease threats. While there are no active Ebola outbreaks, the threat of Ebola and other infectious diseases remains a global concern, and continued investment in preparedness and response is critical.
- Can Ebola be transmitted through the air?
No, Ebola is not transmitted through the air. The virus is only transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids of an infected person or animal.
- Is there a cure for Ebola?
Currently, there is no specific cure for Ebola, and treatment is mainly supportive care.
- Can someone recover from Ebola?
Yes, many individuals have recovered from Ebola, although some cases can result in severe illness and death.
- What is the Global Health Security Agenda?
The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is a collaborative effort between the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other international partners to promote global health security through capacity building, risk assessment, and preparedness planning.