[ANSWERED 2023] Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention

Last Updated on August 8, 2023 by Admin

Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain

Health care planners could be more

Complete ALL of the bullet points below:

  • Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain of progression of specific diseases. Instead, most focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems. Assess the characteristics of the medical care culture that encourage the latter approach.

  • Hospitals and other health care institutions, whether voluntary or for-profit, need to be financially solvent to survive growing market pressures. Describe how this “bottom line” focus has changed the nature of the US health care system.

  • The insurance industry plays a huge role in the American health care system and absorbs a significant portion of the health care dollar. A single payer system, whether it is a private company or the US government, would eliminate the complex insurance paperwork burden and free substantial funds that could be diverted to support care for the under-served. Why do you believe that so much resistance to a concept used in every other developed country has continued in the U.S.?

Please submit one APA formatted paper between 1000 – 1500 words, not including the title and reference page. The assignment should have a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

Required Text

Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1284114676

Expert Answer and Explanation

The Issues in Healthcare Delivery

Question 1

The United States continues to experience a shift from the conventional disease prevention models which focus on the disease’s history to develop an intervention, to the adoption of the high-technology alternative methods to prevent medical complications. Providers as well as policy formulators are increasingly developing the preference for technologies such as HealthMap to survey disease outbreak, and detect new threats.

Usually, the surveillance data guide the formulation of the policy as well the intervention strategies focused on the prevention of the spread of diseases such as an airborne disease (Sultz & Young, 2017). However, for the technology to yield results, user should understand how they can apply it in field.

Certain features are common to a medical care culture which encourages the use of advanced technological methods to prevent infections and diseases. These features become evident when one examines the patient, the person providing medical services and the hospital in relation to the use of the technology. In a scenario where an interventionist utilizes technology, for instance, the patient is likely to show immediate gratification.

A healthy or an ailing individual would prefer an intervention model which is efficient with respect to the management and prevention of illnesses, and pain (Sultz & Young, 2017). The fact that the high-end technology facilitates the prevention of the disease through the delivery of the focused care demonstrate that such an intervention often result to the instant gratification.

Work satisfaction is a typical characteristics linked to the use of the high-end technology to promote the disease prevention objectives. Healthcare professionals’ objective narrow down to helping individuals and saving lives through the delivery of the standardized interventions. Whenever caregivers utilize technology for the purpose of attaining healthcare goals such as the reduction of the number of infections, they face less difficulties as compared to when they use the conventional methods which rely on the history of the disease to establish a treatment protocol.

Considering technological approach to the prevention of the disease improves health outcomes, the caregiver satisfaction becomes a common feature associated with this model to the primary intervention (Sultz & Young, 2017).

Improved coordination of tasks as well as communication characterize the use of the informatics to advance the prevention of the diseases. Recently, providers across the U.S. have shown increased interest in using the Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to advance the medical efforts focused on the mitigation of the spread of the disease events.

Through the utilization of this informatics technology, the caregivers coordinate efforts not only to update patients’ medical date but also to access the same to prevent adverse events which could result because of the drug-drug interactions. By having access to a single platform of communication, the medical professionals’ care delivery become informed by the patients’ past medical history.

Health care planners could be more

Question 2

Medical organizations across the U.S. makes efforts to maintain certain limit of the financial solvency status, and this focus has had an impact on the country’s health system. Americans are paying more today than the last decade to access medical services, and because of this development, the public grapples with the issue of the rising costs.

Core to this issue is the surge in the amount of money insurers require beneficiaries to pay as premiums. Given that majority of the Americans are the beneficiaries of the Medicare program, the hospitals’ financial solvency becomes an issue within the context of the American health system (Ande, Pinto, & Arnett, 2015).

The comprehension of the implication of the bottom line on the American healthcare hinge on the analysis of the costs-shift phenomenon. Although the U.S.’s government funds medical programs, it faces the challenge of the inadequate availability of the financial. This, often, causes hospitals to receive insufficient funds, culminating to the inefficient delivery of the services.

Considering that insurers reimburse health organizations approximately 87% of the total medical costs, the latter tends to address this problem by negotiating for the increment of the payments. Based on this phenomenon, a private payers have to pay extra to access the medical services. Thus, the idea that the health organizations have to sustain a certain level of the financial solvency may cause an increase in the costs hospitals charge private payers.

Question 3

The Universal Health System (UHS) is a concept that is in the public discourse in America, and while majority of the Americans accommodate it, it faces resistance from a section of the American public. An economic and historic link exists when one compares the relationship between the exorbitant costs of medical services, and the missing universal coverage.

Under the UHS, the government reimburses costs, and through this reimbursement, it regulates and negotiates the amount charged on medications and medical services. Besides, it abolishes the need for coverage firms which often set strict standards for people to access insurance services (Galea, 2018). However, the opponent of this healthcare program cite various reasons focused on discrediting it.

Ideally, politics is at the center of the counter efforts which make it difficult to implement a universal health program. A sizable number of Americans maintain liberal views, and this group has minimum support for the idea of the involvement of the government in matters concerning the control of the healthcare payments. Indeed, the opinion of this group mirror the results of the previous survey which showed that only less than 50% of adult Americans think that the government is responsible for covering the public’s healthcare costs.

This view demonstrates that the support for the universal healthcare may not receive total support not only because of the political reasons but because of differing individual opinions on the issue of healthcare delivery as well (Galea, 2018).

Still on the political aspects and their impact on the adoption of the universal coverage, the political class creates barriers which often negates the shift towards a UHS. The previous efforts to pass the progressive reforms on the UHS flopped, partly due to the political resistance at the time, and despite the U.S. making significant gain in passing the Affordable Care Act (ACA), political interventions seems to negate the attainment of the objectives which the law seek to realize.

With recent efforts by the Trump administration to undermine the ACA, the political interference is a key factor that makes it difficult to achieve a universal health care delivery model in the U.S (Galea, 2018).

However, interest groups continue to emerge as a force, vocal against the efforts of the U.S.’s government to pass UHS. Often, the interest groups’ impact is noticeable when considering their influence on the congressional decisions. Immediately prior to the enactment of the ACA, this group, consisting of the insurance firms, lobbied to have congress vote against the law. With persistent efforts to find an alternative solution to the health care problem, Americans grapple with uncertainty on whether the current administration will roll back the ACA.


Ande, J. P., Pinto, F. J., & Arnett, D. K. (2015). Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: From current evidence to clinical practice. Cham : Springer.

Galea, S. (2018). Healthier: Fifty thoughts on the foundations of population health. New York : Oxford University Press.

Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1284114676.

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Barriers to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention


Health promotion and disease prevention are vital aspects of maintaining a healthy population. However, various barriers often hinder the successful implementation of these initiatives. In this article, we will explore some of the key obstacles that prevent effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies and discuss potential solutions to overcome them.

Socioeconomic Barriers

Lack of Access to Healthcare Services

Many individuals face significant challenges in accessing healthcare services, especially in low-income communities or remote areas. This lack of access prevents timely screenings, vaccinations, and early disease detection.

Financial Constraints

Healthcare costs can be a major barrier to seeking preventive care. High medical expenses, including insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs, can deter individuals from pursuing health promotion activities.

Educational Disparities

Limited education and health literacy can lead to misunderstanding and skepticism about preventive measures. Educating communities about the benefits of health promotion is crucial to overcoming this barrier.

Cultural and Behavioral Barriers

Misconceptions and Beliefs

Cultural beliefs and misconceptions about health and wellness can hinder the adoption of preventive practices. Respectful dialogue and culturally appropriate interventions can help address this barrier.

Unhealthy Lifestyle Choices

Unhealthy habits, such as tobacco use, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyles, contribute to the prevalence of preventable diseases. Promoting healthy behaviors through education and incentives can help break this cycle.

Language and Communication Barriers

Effective communication is essential for health promotion efforts. Language barriers and inadequate health communication can prevent individuals from understanding the importance of disease prevention.

Technological and Infrastructural Barriers

Limited Healthcare Facilities

In remote or underserved areas, a lack of healthcare facilities can hinder access to preventive services. Expanding medical infrastructure is critical to overcoming this barrier.

Inadequate Technology Integration

Slow adoption of digital health technologies may impede the dissemination of preventive information and limit telemedicine opportunities, especially during public health emergencies.

Data Security Concerns

Health data privacy concerns can lead to hesitancy in participating in health promotion programs that require sharing personal information. Robust data protection measures are essential to address this issue.

Policy and Governmental Barriers

Inadequate Funding

Insufficient funding for health promotion initiatives can limit the scope and effectiveness of preventive measures. Governments must allocate adequate resources to support these programs.

Complex Regulatory Processes

Bureaucratic hurdles and lengthy approval processes can delay the implementation of health promotion strategies. Streamlining regulations can help facilitate faster action.

Lack of Interagency Collaboration

Fragmented approaches to health promotion among various agencies can lead to inefficiencies. Enhanced collaboration and coordination are necessary to achieve meaningful results.

Psychological Barriers

Fear and Stigma

Stigma surrounding certain health conditions may deter individuals from seeking preventive care or discussing their health concerns openly.

Mental Health Taboos

Mental health is an integral part of overall well-being, but societal taboos often prevent individuals from seeking help or acknowledging their mental health needs.

Reluctance to Seek Help

Some individuals may delay seeking medical attention due to a fear of diagnosis or the belief that symptoms will resolve on their own.

Geographic Barriers

Remote and Rural Areas

Residents of remote or rural areas may face challenges in accessing healthcare facilities and health promotion services.

Transportation Challenges

Limited transportation options can make it difficult for individuals to reach healthcare facilities, especially for routine check-ups or preventive screenings.

Environmental Factors

Environmental hazards, such as pollution or lack of green spaces, can negatively impact public health and hinder disease prevention efforts.

Time Constraints and Busy Lifestyles

Work-related Stress

High work-related stress levels can lead to neglecting self-care and preventive health measures.

Lack of Time for Self-Care

Busy lifestyles may leave individuals with little time to focus on health promotion activities.

Difficulty in Prioritizing Health

In a fast-paced world, health promotion may take a backseat to other priorities, reducing its effectiveness.

Age-Related Barriers

Limited Health Literacy Among Elderly

Elderly individuals may face challenges in understanding health information and adopting preventive measures.

Pediatric Health Promotion Challenges

Promoting health among children requires age-appropriate approaches and engaging parents or guardians in the process.

Age-Appropriate Interventions

Health promotion strategies must consider the specific needs and concerns of different age groups.

Lack of Awareness and Information

Inadequate Health Education

Insufficient education about health promotion and disease prevention may lead to missed opportunities for early intervention.

Limited Knowledge About Preventive Measures

Many individuals may not be aware of the preventive measures available to them, resulting in missed opportunities for better health.

Dissemination of Information

Efficient dissemination of health information is essential for reaching the target audience and encouraging proactive health behaviors.

Influence of Social Media and Advertising

Misleading Health Information

The proliferation of misleading health information on social media can lead to confusion and misinformation among the public.

Conflicting Messages

Contradictory health messages from various sources can make it challenging for individuals to discern the best course of action.

Commercial Interests

Profit-driven motives may compromise the accuracy and objectivity of health-related content in advertisements.

Trust Issues and Healthcare Professionals

Cultural Sensitivity

Cultural competence is crucial for healthcare professionals to build trust with patients from diverse backgrounds.

Past Negative Experiences

Negative experiences with healthcare providers may lead to reluctance in seeking preventive care.

Building Trustful Relationships

Establishing strong patient-provider relationships based on trust and respect can improve health promotion outcomes.

Inequality and Discrimination

Racial Disparities in Healthcare

Racial and ethnic minorities may face systemic barriers in accessing quality healthcare and health promotion resources.

Gender Bias

Gender-based discrimination can influence the availability and effectiveness of health promotion initiatives.

LGBTQ+ Health Challenges

Members of the LGBTQ+ community may encounter unique barriers to health promotion due to societal stigma and discrimination.

Global Health Challenges

Pandemics and Outbreaks

Global health crises can disrupt health promotion efforts and require swift international cooperation.

International Cooperation

Collaboration among nations is crucial for addressing global health challenges and improving disease prevention on a worldwide scale.

Resource Allocation

Efficient allocation of resources is essential to ensure that health promotion efforts reach vulnerable populations worldwide.

Overcoming Barriers: Strategies and Solutions

Addressing the barriers to health promotion and disease prevention requires comprehensive strategies:

Community Engagement and Empowerment

Involving communities in the planning and implementation of health promotion initiatives fosters a sense of ownership and commitment.

Collaborative Efforts

Partnerships between healthcare providers, government agencies, and community organizations strengthen the impact of health promotion campaigns.

Technology Advancements

Leveraging technology, such as mobile health applications and telemedicine, can enhance the reach and effectiveness of preventive services.

Policy Reforms and Advocacy

Advocating for policy changes that support preventive care and address social determinants of health is essential.

Education and Awareness Campaigns

Promoting health literacy and raising awareness about preventive measures empowers individuals to take charge of their well-being.


Health promotion and disease prevention are fundamental pillars of a thriving society. By acknowledging and addressing the various barriers hindering these efforts, we can create a healthier and more resilient world.


  1. Why is health promotion important? Health promotion helps prevent diseases, improve overall well-being, and reduce healthcare costs.
  2. What are some common behavioral barriers to health promotion? Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and poor diet, can pose significant barriers to health promotion.
  3. How can technology overcome healthcare barriers? Technology enables remote access to healthcare services and provides health-related information at one’s fingertips.
  4. What role does government play in health promotion? Governments can allocate resources, implement policies, and advocate for health promotion initiatives.
  5. How can individuals contribute to health promotion? Individuals can adopt healthy habits, participate in community initiatives, and stay informed about preventive measures.

Methods of Increasing Preventive Care Measures


In the pursuit of a healthy and fulfilling life, preventive care measures play a crucial role. Preventive care involves taking proactive steps to avoid illness or detect health issues at an early stage, which can lead to better health outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. In this article, we will explore various methods to increase the adoption of preventive care measures among individuals and communities.

The Importance of Preventive Care Measures

Preventive care measures are essential because they empower individuals to take control of their health and well-being. By focusing on prevention rather than just treatment, individuals can avoid the suffering and expenses associated with preventable diseases. Preventive care also promotes a healthier society, reducing the burden on healthcare systems and freeing up resources for more critical medical needs.

Healthy Lifestyle Choices

A cornerstone of preventive care is making healthy lifestyle choices. Encouraging individuals to adopt a balanced diet, engage in regular exercise, and get adequate sleep can significantly impact their overall health and well-being.

Balanced Diet

A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins provides essential nutrients and helps maintain a healthy weight.

Regular Exercise

Physical activity not only helps with weight management but also improves cardiovascular health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases.

Adequate Sleep

Quality sleep is crucial for mental and physical health, promoting better immune function and overall well-being.

Regular Health Check-ups

Regular health check-ups are vital for detecting potential health issues early on and ensuring timely intervention.

Importance of Check-ups

Routine check-ups allow healthcare professionals to monitor an individual’s health and identify risk factors or early signs of diseases.

Recommended Check-up Frequency

The frequency of check-ups may vary based on age, gender, and individual health conditions. Regular screenings for blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and cancer can save lives.

Immunizations and Vaccinations

Immunizations and vaccinations are powerful preventive tools that protect against infectious diseases.

How Vaccinations Work

Vaccinations introduce a weakened form of a pathogen into the body, prompting the immune system to develop antibodies without causing the disease.

Common Preventable Diseases

Vaccines can prevent diseases such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis, safeguarding individuals and communities.

Managing Stress and Mental Health

Stress and mental health are interconnected with physical well-being, making stress management crucial for preventive care.

Impact of Stress on Health

Chronic stress can weaken the immune system, elevate blood pressure, and contribute to various health issues.

Stress-Reducing Techniques

Practicing mindfulness, engaging in hobbies, and seeking social support are effective ways to manage stress.

Encouraging Health Screenings

Creating awareness about the importance of health screenings can encourage more individuals to undergo preventive tests.

Creating Awareness

Public health campaigns and community events can educate people about available health screenings and their benefits.

Community Health Programs

Collaboration with community organizations and local healthcare providers can increase accessibility to health screenings.

Promoting Hygiene and Cleanliness

Basic hygiene practices can prevent the spread of infections and diseases.


Regular handwashing with soap and water is one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of germs.

Sanitization Practices

Maintaining clean environments, especially in shared spaces, reduces the risk of infections.

Educating about Preventive Care

Raising awareness about preventive care is essential for driving behavior change in individuals and communities.

Public Health Campaigns

Government and non-governmental organizations can launch campaigns to educate the public about preventive care measures.

Schools and Colleges Involvement

Integrating preventive care education into school curricula can instill lifelong healthy habits in the younger generation.

Utilizing Technology for Health Monitoring

Technological advancements offer innovative ways to monitor and manage individual health.

Wearable Devices

Wearable health trackers can monitor heart rate, physical activity, and sleep patterns, promoting a proactive approach to health.

Health Apps

Mobile applications provide valuable health information, reminders for screenings, and medication management tools.

Financial Planning for Health

Ensuring access to healthcare services requires proper financial planning.

Health Insurance

Having health insurance coverage can make preventive services more accessible and affordable.

Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)

HSAs allow individuals to save money specifically for medical expenses, fostering a sense of responsibility for personal health.

Workplace Wellness Programs

Employers can play a vital role in promoting preventive care among their employees.

Employee Health Initiatives

Workplace wellness programs can offer incentives for healthy behaviors and provide health resources to employees.

Ergonomic Workspaces

Creating ergonomic work environments can improve employee well-being and reduce the risk of work-related health issues.

Integrating Preventive Care into Primary Care

Effective communication between patients and healthcare providers is essential for personalized preventive care.

Doctor-Patient Communication

Healthcare professionals can discuss preventive measures with patients during regular visits.

Personalized Preventive Plans

Tailoring preventive care plans to individual health needs and risk factors can enhance effectiveness.

The Role of Government and Policy

Government policies and regulations significantly impact preventive care measures.

Healthcare Regulations

Implementing regulations that support preventive care can improve population health outcomes.

Funding Preventive Care

Allocating resources and funding to preventive care initiatives is crucial for their success.


Emphasizing preventive care measures is the key to building a healthier society. By adopting healthy lifestyle choices, undergoing regular screenings, getting vaccinated, managing stress, and utilizing technology, individuals can take charge of their health. Moreover, educational efforts, workplace initiatives, and supportive policies play a vital role in increasing preventive care adoption. Together, we can create a future where prevention is the cornerstone of healthcare.


  1. What is preventive care? Preventive care involves taking proactive steps to avoid illness or detect health issues early, focusing on prevention rather than just treatment.
  2. Why is preventive care essential? Preventive care empowers individuals to control their health, reduces healthcare costs, and promotes a healthier society.
  3. What are some healthy lifestyle choices for preventive care? Eating a balanced diet, engaging in regular exercise, and getting adequate sleep are crucial healthy lifestyle choices.
  4. How do vaccinations contribute to preventive care? Vaccinations protect against infectious diseases, safeguarding individuals and communities.
  5. What role does technology play in preventive care? Technology, such as wearable devices and health apps, allows for better health monitoring and management.

Benefits of Preventive Healthcare

Preventive healthcare is a proactive approach to maintaining well-being by focusing on disease prevention and early detection. Rather than waiting for symptoms to arise, preventive care involves regular screenings, vaccinations, and lifestyle modifications to keep potential health issues at bay. This article explores the significant benefits of preventive healthcare and why it is essential for individuals and communities.

1. Improved Overall Health

One of the primary benefits of preventive healthcare is improved overall health. By adopting healthy habits and participating in routine health check-ups, individuals can prevent the onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. Early detection of health problems allows for prompt intervention and better management, leading to better health outcomes.

2. Reduced Healthcare Costs

Preventive healthcare can significantly reduce healthcare costs in the long run. By identifying health issues early and addressing them promptly, individuals can avoid costly medical treatments and hospitalizations that may arise from untreated conditions. Additionally, preventive measures like vaccinations prevent the spread of infectious diseases, which can save healthcare resources.

3. Enhanced Quality of Life

Embracing preventive healthcare measures can lead to an enhanced quality of life. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep contribute to increased energy levels, improved mood, and a sense of well-being. Managing stress and mental health also play a crucial role in promoting a fulfilling and balanced life.

4. Longer Lifespan

Preventive healthcare is associated with a longer lifespan. By taking care of one’s health and making informed decisions, individuals can reduce the risk of life-threatening conditions and live longer, healthier lives.

5. Early Detection of Health Conditions

Regular health screenings and check-ups facilitate the early detection of potential health conditions. Early diagnosis allows for timely treatment, which can prevent the progression of diseases and improve the chances of successful recovery.

6. Prevention of Chronic Diseases

Many chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and certain cancers, can be prevented or managed effectively through preventive healthcare practices. Lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and managing blood pressure, can significantly reduce the risk of these conditions.

7. Protection Against Infectious Diseases

Vaccinations are a crucial component of preventive healthcare as they protect individuals and communities against infectious diseases. Vaccines have been instrumental in eradicating or controlling several deadly diseases, making immunization a vital public health measure.

8. Healthier Communities

When a significant portion of the population embraces preventive healthcare, it creates healthier communities. Healthier individuals mean a reduced burden on healthcare systems, freeing up resources to address more pressing medical needs and emergencies.

9. Empowerment and Control

Preventive healthcare empowers individuals to take control of their health. By making informed choices about their lifestyle and health screenings, individuals can actively participate in their well-being and improve their health outcomes.

10. Promotes Well-Being in All Age Groups

Preventive healthcare is beneficial for individuals of all age groups. From childhood vaccinations to regular check-ups in adulthood and health screenings in old age, preventive care supports well-being at every stage of life.


Preventive healthcare offers a wide range of benefits that positively impact individuals, communities, and healthcare systems as a whole. By prioritizing regular health check-ups, adopting healthy lifestyle choices, and getting vaccinated, individuals can enjoy improved overall health, reduced healthcare costs, and an enhanced quality of life. Embracing preventive healthcare is a powerful investment in a healthier and brighter future for everyone.


  1. What is preventive healthcare? Preventive healthcare involves proactive measures to prevent diseases and promote well-being through regular screenings and healthy lifestyle choices.
  2. How does preventive healthcare reduce healthcare costs? Preventive healthcare helps identify health issues early, reducing the need for costly medical treatments and hospitalizations.
  3. Can preventive healthcare prevent chronic diseases? Yes, preventive healthcare practices like healthy eating and exercise can prevent or effectively manage many chronic diseases.
  4. Why are vaccinations essential in preventive healthcare? Vaccinations protect individuals and communities from infectious diseases, preventing their spread and impact.
  5. At what age should one start practicing preventive healthcare? Preventive healthcare is beneficial for individuals of all ages, starting from childhood vaccinations to regular health check-ups in adulthood and beyond.

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