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[ANSWERED 2023] Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention

Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain

Health care planners could be more

Complete ALL of the bullet points below:

  • Health care planners could be more effective and efficient if they used the concept of the natural history of disease and the levels of prevention to design services that intervene at the weakest link in the chain of progression of specific diseases. Instead, most focus on high-technology solutions to preventable problems. Assess the characteristics of the medical care culture that encourage the latter approach.

  • Hospitals and other health care institutions, whether voluntary or for-profit, need to be financially solvent to survive growing market pressures. Describe how this “bottom line” focus has changed the nature of the US health care system.

  • The insurance industry plays a huge role in the American health care system and absorbs a significant portion of the health care dollar. A single payer system, whether it is a private company or the US government, would eliminate the complex insurance paperwork burden and free substantial funds that could be diverted to support care for the under-served. Why do you believe that so much resistance to a concept used in every other developed country has continued in the U.S.?

Please submit one APA formatted paper between 1000 – 1500 words, not including the title and reference page. The assignment should have a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

Required Text

Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1284114676

Expert Answer and Explanation

The Issues in Healthcare Delivery

Question 1

The United States continues to experience a shift from the conventional disease prevention models which focus on the disease’s history to develop an intervention, to the adoption of the high-technology alternative methods to prevent medical complications. Providers as well as policy formulators are increasingly developing the preference for technologies such as HealthMap to survey disease outbreak, and detect new threats.

Usually, the surveillance data guide the formulation of the policy as well the intervention strategies focused on the prevention of the spread of diseases such as an airborne disease (Sultz & Young, 2017). However, for the technology to yield results, user should understand how they can apply it in field.

Certain features are common to a medical care culture which encourages the use of advanced technological methods to prevent infections and diseases. These features become evident when one examines the patient, the person providing medical services and the hospital in relation to the use of the technology. In a scenario where an interventionist utilizes technology, for instance, the patient is likely to show immediate gratification.

A healthy or an ailing individual would prefer an intervention model which is efficient with respect to the management and prevention of illnesses, and pain (Sultz & Young, 2017). The fact that the high-end technology facilitates the prevention of the disease through the delivery of the focused care demonstrate that such an intervention often result to the instant gratification.

Work satisfaction is a typical characteristics linked to the use of the high-end technology to promote the disease prevention objectives. Healthcare professionals’ objective narrow down to helping individuals and saving lives through the delivery of the standardized interventions. Whenever caregivers utilize technology for the purpose of attaining healthcare goals such as the reduction of the number of infections, they face less difficulties as compared to when they use the conventional methods which rely on the history of the disease to establish a treatment protocol.

Considering technological approach to the prevention of the disease improves health outcomes, the caregiver satisfaction becomes a common feature associated with this model to the primary intervention (Sultz & Young, 2017).

Improved coordination of tasks as well as communication characterize the use of the informatics to advance the prevention of the diseases. Recently, providers across the U.S. have shown increased interest in using the Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to advance the medical efforts focused on the mitigation of the spread of the disease events.

Through the utilization of this informatics technology, the caregivers coordinate efforts not only to update patients’ medical date but also to access the same to prevent adverse events which could result because of the drug-drug interactions. By having access to a single platform of communication, the medical professionals’ care delivery become informed by the patients’ past medical history.

Health care planners could be more

Question 2

Medical organizations across the U.S. makes efforts to maintain certain limit of the financial solvency status, and this focus has had an impact on the country’s health system. Americans are paying more today than the last decade to access medical services, and because of this development, the public grapples with the issue of the rising costs.

Core to this issue is the surge in the amount of money insurers require beneficiaries to pay as premiums. Given that majority of the Americans are the beneficiaries of the Medicare program, the hospitals’ financial solvency becomes an issue within the context of the American health system (Ande, Pinto, & Arnett, 2015).

The comprehension of the implication of the bottom line on the American healthcare hinge on the analysis of the costs-shift phenomenon. Although the U.S.’s government funds medical programs, it faces the challenge of the inadequate availability of the financial. This, often, causes hospitals to receive insufficient funds, culminating to the inefficient delivery of the services.

Considering that insurers reimburse health organizations approximately 87% of the total medical costs, the latter tends to address this problem by negotiating for the increment of the payments. Based on this phenomenon, a private payers have to pay extra to access the medical services. Thus, the idea that the health organizations have to sustain a certain level of the financial solvency may cause an increase in the costs hospitals charge private payers.

Question 3

The Universal Health System (UHS) is a concept that is in the public discourse in America, and while majority of the Americans accommodate it, it faces resistance from a section of the American public. An economic and historic link exists when one compares the relationship between the exorbitant costs of medical services, and the missing universal coverage.

Under the UHS, the government reimburses costs, and through this reimbursement, it regulates and negotiates the amount charged on medications and medical services. Besides, it abolishes the need for coverage firms which often set strict standards for people to access insurance services (Galea, 2018). However, the opponent of this healthcare program cite various reasons focused on discrediting it.

Ideally, politics is at the center of the counter efforts which make it difficult to implement a universal health program. A sizable number of Americans maintain liberal views, and this group has minimum support for the idea of the involvement of the government in matters concerning the control of the healthcare payments. Indeed, the opinion of this group mirror the results of the previous survey which showed that only less than 50% of adult Americans think that the government is responsible for covering the public’s healthcare costs.

This view demonstrates that the support for the universal healthcare may not receive total support not only because of the political reasons but because of differing individual opinions on the issue of healthcare delivery as well (Galea, 2018).

Still on the political aspects and their impact on the adoption of the universal coverage, the political class creates barriers which often negates the shift towards a UHS. The previous efforts to pass the progressive reforms on the UHS flopped, partly due to the political resistance at the time, and despite the U.S. making significant gain in passing the Affordable Care Act (ACA), political interventions seems to negate the attainment of the objectives which the law seek to realize.

With recent efforts by the Trump administration to undermine the ACA, the political interference is a key factor that makes it difficult to achieve a universal health care delivery model in the U.S (Galea, 2018).

However, interest groups continue to emerge as a force, vocal against the efforts of the U.S.’s government to pass UHS. Often, the interest groups’ impact is noticeable when considering their influence on the congressional decisions. Immediately prior to the enactment of the ACA, this group, consisting of the insurance firms, lobbied to have congress vote against the law. With persistent efforts to find an alternative solution to the health care problem, Americans grapple with uncertainty on whether the current administration will roll back the ACA.


Ande, J. P., Pinto, F. J., & Arnett, D. K. (2015). Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: From current evidence to clinical practice. Cham : Springer.

Galea, S. (2018). Healthier: Fifty thoughts on the foundations of population health. New York : Oxford University Press.

Sultz, H. A., & Young, K. A. (2017). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (9th ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1284114676.

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barriers to health promotion and disease prevention
methods of increasing preventive care measures
benefits of preventive health care scholarly articles
preventive care statistics 2021
preventive health measures
benefits of preventive healthcare
disadvantages of preventive health care
importance of preventive health care

Barriers to health promotion and disease prevention

There are several barriers to health promotion and disease prevention, including:
  1. Lack of knowledge: Many people lack the knowledge about how to prevent diseases and maintain good health. This includes knowing about healthy behaviors such as regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol.
  2. Limited access to healthcare: For many people, access to healthcare is limited due to financial constraints or lack of healthcare facilities in their area. This can make it difficult to receive preventive services such as immunizations, cancer screenings, and regular check-ups.
  3. Socioeconomic factors: Health promotion and disease prevention can be influenced by socioeconomic factors such as poverty, unemployment, and limited access to education. These factors can make it difficult for individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles and access preventive services.
  4. Cultural barriers: Cultural beliefs and practices can also act as a barrier to health promotion and disease prevention. For example, some cultures may view certain illnesses as a sign of weakness or shame, making it difficult for individuals to seek medical care.
  5. Psychological barriers: Psychological factors such as fear, anxiety, and lack of motivation can also act as barriers to health promotion and disease prevention. Some people may be afraid to go to the doctor or to change their behavior for fear of the unknown or fear of failure.
  6. Environmental barriers: The physical environment can also play a role in health promotion and disease prevention. For example, living in an area with high levels of pollution can increase the risk of respiratory illnesses, and living in an area with limited access to healthy food options can make it difficult to maintain a healthy diet.
Addressing these barriers requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, healthcare access, addressing socioeconomic and cultural factors, and creating supportive environments that promote healthy behaviors.

Methods of increasing preventive care measures

There are several methods that can be used to increase preventive care measures:
  1. Patient education: Educating patients about the importance of preventive care measures and how to access them is critical. This can include providing information about recommended screenings, immunizations, and lifestyle changes that can improve health outcomes.
  2. Provider education and training: Providers need to be trained in evidence-based preventive care practices and encouraged to prioritize preventive care in their patient interactions. This can involve ongoing education and training programs to keep providers up-to-date on the latest recommendations and best practices.
  3. Electronic health records (EHRs): EHRs can be used to automate reminders and notifications to patients and providers about upcoming preventive care measures, such as screenings and immunizations.
  4. Incentives and rewards: Incentives and rewards can be offered to patients and providers who prioritize preventive care measures. This can include financial incentives, such as reduced copays or bonuses for providers who meet certain preventive care targets.
  5. Community outreach and engagement: Community outreach and engagement can help to increase awareness of preventive care measures and provide resources and support to help people access them. This can include community health fairs, educational campaigns, and partnerships with local organizations.
  6. Policy changes: Policy changes at the local, state, and federal levels can help to promote preventive care measures. This can include expanding access to healthcare services, increasing funding for preventive care programs, and implementing laws and regulations that promote healthy behaviors.
Overall, a comprehensive approach that involves patient education, provider training, EHRs, incentives and rewards, community outreach, and policy changes can help to increase preventive care measures and improve health outcomes.

Preventive care statistics 2021

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2018, the most recent year for which data is available:
  • About 69% of adults aged 50 to 75 were up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening.
  • About 78% of women aged 50 to 74 had a mammogram in the past two years.
  • About 80% of adults aged 65 and older had received an influenza vaccine in the past year.
  • About 34% of adults aged 18 to 64 with private health insurance had received a flu shot during the 2017-2018 flu season.
While these numbers show some progress in preventive care measures, there is still room for improvement. The CDC recommends that adults receive regular preventive care screenings and immunizations to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and improve overall health outcomes.

Disadvantages of preventive health care

While preventive health care has many advantages, there are also some potential disadvantages to consider:
  1. Cost: Preventive care can be expensive, particularly for those who don't have insurance coverage. This can make it difficult for some people to access the care they need, leading to disparities in health outcomes.
  2. False positives: Some preventive screenings can produce false positives, leading to unnecessary and potentially harmful treatments or procedures.
  3. Overdiagnosis: Preventive screenings can also lead to overdiagnosis, which occurs when a person is diagnosed with a condition that would not have caused symptoms or harm during their lifetime.
  4. Overutilization of services: Some people may undergo more preventive screenings and procedures than necessary, leading to unnecessary testing and treatments that can increase costs and risks.
  5. Psychological distress: Preventive care screenings can cause anxiety and stress for some people, particularly if they receive abnormal results or are unsure about the need for the screening in the first place.
  6. Unnecessary treatments: In some cases, preventive care measures may lead to unnecessary treatments or procedures that can be risky and expensive.
It's important to weigh the potential advantages and disadvantages of preventive health care measures and to discuss the risks and benefits with a healthcare provider. Ultimately, the decision to pursue preventive care should be based on individual health risks, preferences, and circumstances.

Importance of preventive health care

Preventive health care is important for several reasons:
  1. Early detection and treatment: Preventive health care measures can help detect diseases and conditions early, when they are more easily treatable and less likely to cause serious complications.
  2. Reduced healthcare costs: By identifying health issues early, preventive care can help reduce healthcare costs by preventing more expensive treatments and hospitalizations later on.
  3. Improved health outcomes: Preventive care can help individuals achieve and maintain better health outcomes by managing chronic conditions, preventing disease, and promoting healthy behaviors.
  4. Better quality of life: Preventive care measures can help individuals live longer, healthier lives with improved quality of life.
  5. Improved public health: When more individuals receive preventive care, the overall health of the population can improve, reducing the spread of communicable diseases and promoting a healthier society.
  6. Empowerment: Preventive health care empowers individuals to take control of their health and well-being, encouraging them to make positive lifestyle changes and seek care when needed.
Overall, preventive health care is an essential part of maintaining optimal health and well-being, and can help individuals live longer, healthier, and more fulfilling lives.

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