[ANSWERED 2023] For this assignment you will interview a person from a cultural background that is different from your own. Using the twelve domains of culture from the Purnell Model

Last Updated on October 17, 2023 by Admin

For this assignment you will interview a person from a cultural background that is different from your own. Using the twelve domains of culture from the Purnell Model
For this assignment you will interview a person from a cultural

For this assignment you will interview a person from a cultural background that is different from your own. Using the twelve domains of culture from the Purnell Model, discuss the health practices of that culture and compose a scholarly paper in a Microsoft Word document of 5–6 pages formatted in APA style.

[ANSWERED 2023] For this assignment you will interview a person from a cultural background that is different from your own. Using the twelve domains of culture from the Purnell Model.

In your paper, you should include the following:

Select a person from a cultural group different from your own. You may choose a patient, friend, or work colleague. For the sake of confidentiality, do not reveal the name of the person you interview; use only initials.

For the person you select, complete the cultural assessment using questions 1 through 12 from the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence in your textbook, Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach.

On a separate page, cite all sources using APA format.

  • Use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources.
  • This handout will provide you the details of formatting your essay using APA style.
  • You may create your essay in this APA-formatted template.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Assessment of Cultural Competency

Caregivers are expected to provide holistic care to patients, and this requires that they understand their patients’ cultural values as well as beliefs, and incorporate this knowledge in making clinical decisions. For practitioners, the delivery of the holistic and patient-centered care is becoming a hallmark of practice, and policy makers as well as health care organizations are placing emphasis on full integration of cultural elements in all areas of practice including evidence preparation (Dayer-Berenson, 2014).

Thus, the role of this study is to explore the process of application of the Purnell model in assessing the cultural beliefs and values of a different culture.

The patient I interviewed is of Indian heritage, and she moved to the United States (U.S.) in 2016. Despite the high rates of poverty in her country, families place priority on education, and given that the education is free and mandatory, the school attendance is high. Her parents never went past the primary level of education, and despite her having gone past the high school level, and they are into business in her home country.

This also applies to most of the extended members of her family, despite her country having thousands of high schools and higher learning institutions. Some parts of the country are mountainous while other parts are hilly, and this topographical characteristics influence the cultures they practice as well as the foods they eat (Dayer-Berenson, 2014).

Besides, the country is democratic.

When asked about the way they communicate, she mentioned that they use verbal and non-verbal cues when communicating. In addition to using gestures, they great each other as a form of expressing respect, and this however differs from one culture to the other. Just like majority of families in her native country, she speaks Punjab, and Hindu.

Another approach to expressing respect entails bending over and touching elders’ feet (Ferrell & Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association, 2016). Eye contact is allowed within this culture, and caregivers can touch patients as long as they do it appropriately when treating patients.

The patient when assessed based on the family roles as well as organization, admitted that her parents are legally married, and they have had a fairly good family relationships. This is partly because of the cultural norms of her home country which define the boundaries of roles of each member of the family.

According to her cultural heritage, she is expected to marry within her culture, and even when she gets married, her husband would still have to be the head of the family.

This means that her husband would be responsible for making some of the decisions she may find it difficult to make. Still based on her culture, she is expected to have a husband when she reaches a specific age. Religious practices largely determine the right or wrong where one gets a child out of wedlock.

The interviewee also responded on questions concerning the workforce issues related to her home country. She did admit that her parents faced challenges when they started a vehicle spare parts shop, and this is because the government trade policies made it difficult for importers to important some types of spare parts.

This however changed when the government made the resolve to changes trade policies to allow for the importation of the spares. Although it is a conservative society, women occupy various job roles, and some are even involved in policing. Although alternative medicine is popular in rural parts, there is still wide acceptance of the modern medicine.

Although it is large and ethnically diverse, the country has dark-haired and brown-skinned natives with brown eyes. However, the country also have the members of the Siddhi communities, living in selected parts of the country. According to the patient, turban is a popular traditional clothing amount the Sikh communities, and some wear these clothes every time they go for prayers (Dayer-Berenson, 2014).

Common health conditions, based on the information the patient provided, include anemia and high blood pressure.

An important observation made during the interview was that the use of substance is a problem in the Indian community. The use of the alcoholic substances is a problem particularly in rural as well as slum communities. She admitted that her maternal uncle is a victim of alcohol use, and a couple of her neighbors back home also consumer alcoholic substances.

This has exacerbated social issues such as crime and prostitution especially in low income neighborhoods.

Food and nutrition are inherently part of the culture of the patient. Under Sikhism, for instance, vegetarianism is widely practiced, and this is part of the practice of ensuring that members remain pure. Among the foods they eat include rice and some plant proteins including beans. The fact that some families lack refrigeration equipment to store meat also explains the reason for the practice of vegetarianism (Dayer-Berenson, 2014).

Because of the unbalanced nutrition, rates of anemia are high in the country.

The patient, when responding to the question on pregnancy and fertility admitted that her knowledge on these issues was limited to premarital sex and birth control. Her culture does not condone both of these practices, and child-giving is considered a sacred act across various religious doctrines. She admitted that she experienced her extended family members as well as her community practicing these values.

The Indian society is monolithic in nature, and this reflects in the way the Indian cultures perform the death rituals, and this is according to the responses which the patient provided. Cremation is a widely accepted tradition across the two major religious groups in the country. In contrary, Muslim and Christian communities adhere to the conventional burial practices where they bury their dead without cremated their bodies (Pedersen et al., 2015). Devotion to God, according to these two communities, determine whether one transcends to the next life.

The patient’s native country is largely spiritual, and manifests in the various ways they conduct their religious and spiritual activities. Although Hinduism is widespread, Sikhism is popular with a considerable number of the Indian populations. The patient consider herself a moderate Hindu, and she expresses this through her clothing (Pedersen et al., 2015).

The patient shared her views concerning the health care practices in the context of her culture. She admitted that majority of the Indian households rely on the modern medicine for their health, and she would thus, likely choose this approach to treatment instead of the alternative medicine. She also claimed that some families use alternative medicines such as spices for treatment of some diseases.

When asked about what she thinks about health care practitioners, she maintained that Indians have reverence for caregivers, and allow them to make medical decisions. This also applies to the traditional medicine people. According to the patient, physicians and nurses can treat patients of different gender as long family accepts it.


In overview, Purnell model is intended to guide caregivers through the process of delivering culturally competent care, and based on this interview, the patient seems to have comprehensive views concerning cultural aspects of health care delivery. She seems self-aware, and she has a deep understanding of the cultural norms of her country of origin.

Thus, she is in a position to become a partner in clinical decision making process.


Dayer-Berenson, L. (2014). Cultural competencies for nurses: Impact on health and illness. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Ferrell, B., & Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association. (2016). Pediatric palliative care. Oxford;: Oxford University Press.

Pedersen, P. B., Lonner, W. J., Draguns, J. G., Trimble, J. E., & Scharrón-del, R. M. R. (2015). Counseling Across Cultures. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

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Understanding the Cultural Competence Model: A Guide to Effective Cross-Cultural Interactions

In today’s increasingly globalized world, individuals, businesses, and organizations interact with people from diverse cultural backgrounds more than ever before. To facilitate meaningful connections and collaborations, the concept of cultural competence has gained significant importance. This article aims to explore the cultural competence model, its significance, and practical ways to enhance cross-cultural interactions.


In a world marked by intricate cultural intersections, developing cultural competence has become imperative. This article delves into the core aspects of the cultural competence model and its practical implications in fostering better cross-cultural interactions.

What is Cultural Competence?

Cultural competence refers to the ability of individuals to understand, appreciate, and effectively interact with people from diverse cultural backgrounds. It involves being mindful of cultural differences and adapting one’s behavior, communication style, and attitudes to create inclusive and respectful environments.

Why is Cultural Competence Important?

Cultural competence plays a pivotal role in bridging cultural gaps and promoting harmonious relationships. In an era of globalization, where cultures intersect in various settings, possessing cultural competence ensures meaningful engagement rather than miscommunication and misunderstandings.

Key Components of the Cultural Competence Model

Cultural Awareness

Cultural awareness entails recognizing and acknowledging the existence of diverse cultures and understanding how they shape individuals’ perspectives and behaviors. It’s the first step towards effective cross-cultural interactions.

Cultural Knowledge

Cultural knowledge involves actively seeking information about different cultures, their history, values, traditions, and norms. This knowledge helps in understanding the context of interactions and avoiding cultural insensitivity.

Cultural Skills

Cultural skills refer to the ability to effectively communicate, collaborate, and solve problems across cultures. These skills include active listening, empathy, conflict resolution, and adapting communication styles.

Cultural Attitudes

Cultural attitudes encompass having an open mindset, respect for diversity, and a willingness to learn from other cultures. Positive cultural attitudes promote inclusivity and reduce biases.

Benefits of Developing Cultural Competence

Cultural competence brings forth numerous advantages, including enhanced communication, reduced conflicts, increased creativity through diverse perspectives, and improved problem-solving capabilities.

Steps to Enhance Cultural Competence

Self-Reflection and Awareness

Start by reflecting on your own cultural biases and assumptions. Understand how your background influences your perceptions and behaviors.

Learning About Different Cultures

Actively engage in learning about various cultures. Attend cultural events, read literature, and engage in conversations with people from different backgrounds.

Developing Communication Skills

Practice active listening and effective communication. Learn to navigate cultural nuances in both verbal and nonverbal communication.

Embracing Diversity in Practice

Incorporate diversity in your daily life and interactions. Surround yourself with diverse perspectives to broaden your understanding.

Challenges in Achieving Cultural Competence

Stereotyping and Prejudices

Stereotypes and prejudices can hinder cultural competence. It’s essential to challenge these biases and approach individuals with an open mind.

Language Barriers

Language differences can lead to miscommunication. Efforts should be made to bridge these gaps through patience and clarity.

Nonverbal Communication Differences

Different cultures have varied nonverbal cues. Misinterpreting these cues can lead to misunderstandings. Educate yourself about these differences.

Applying Cultural Competence in Various Fields


Cultural competence in healthcare ensures patients receive respectful and effective care regardless of their cultural background.


Educators with cultural competence create inclusive classrooms where students from all backgrounds feel valued and understood.


Cultural competence in business promotes successful collaborations and negotiations in a global market.

Social Services

Social workers with cultural competence can better understand clients’ needs and provide appropriate support.

Cultural Competence and Effective Leadership

Cultural competence is an essential trait for effective leadership. Leaders who understand and embrace diversity can inspire their teams and foster innovation.


In a world where diverse cultures converge, cultivating cultural competence is pivotal. By being aware, knowledgeable, skilled, and open-minded, individuals can bridge cultural divides and forge meaningful connections.


  1. What is the primary goal of cultural competence? Cultural competence aims to facilitate effective interactions between individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds.
  2. How can I develop cultural skills? Developing cultural skills involves active listening, empathy, and adapting your communication style to different cultures.
  3. Why is cultural competence important in healthcare? Cultural competence in healthcare ensures that patients receive personalized and respectful treatment, considering their cultural beliefs.
  4. What are some common challenges in achieving cultural competence? Challenges include overcoming stereotypes, addressing language barriers, and understanding nonverbal communication differences.
  5. Where can I learn more about different cultures? You can attend cultural events, read books, watch documentaries, and engage in conversations with people from diverse backgrounds.

What are Purnell's 12 domains of culture?

Purnell’s 12 Domains of Culture: Understanding the Multifaceted Aspects of Cultural Identity

Culture is a rich tapestry woven from a multitude of factors that shape individuals and societies. Purnell’s 12 Domains of Culture provide a comprehensive framework to comprehend the intricate layers of cultural identity. These domains offer insights into the diverse elements that contribute to a person’s cultural background.

In this article, we will explore each of these domains, shedding light on their significance and influence on our lives.

Culture encompasses a complex amalgamation of beliefs, practices, values, and traditions that shape who we are. Purnell’s 12 Domains of Culture offer a comprehensive framework to understand and appreciate the diverse facets of cultural identity.

What are Purnell’s 12 Domains of Culture?

Purnell’s model identifies 12 domains that collectively influence an individual’s cultural identity. These domains are:

  1. Communication: Examines language, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the impact of cultural nuances on understanding.
  2. Family Roles and Organization: Explores the structure of families, kinship relationships, and gender roles within a cultural context.
  3. Workforce Issues: Considers cultural norms and values affecting work dynamics, leadership styles, and job expectations.
  4. Biocultural Ecology: Focuses on the interplay between biology and culture, including genetics, health risks, and cultural adaptations.
  5. High-Risk Behaviors: Examines cultural attitudes towards risk-taking behaviors such as substance abuse, violence, and unsafe sexual practices.
  6. Nutrition: Explores dietary practices, food taboos, and the cultural significance of certain foods within different societies.
  7. Pregnancy and Childbirth: Considers cultural beliefs and practices related to conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care.
  8. Death Rituals: Examines cultural rituals and traditions surrounding death, mourning, and afterlife beliefs.
  9. Spirituality: Explores religious beliefs, rituals, and practices that shape an individual’s spiritual life.
  10. Healthcare Practices: Considers traditional healing methods, beliefs about illness and wellness, and preferences for medical treatment.
  11. Healthcare Practices: Considers traditional healing methods, beliefs about illness and wellness, and preferences for medical treatment.
  12. Healthcare Practices: Considers traditional healing methods, beliefs about illness and wellness, and preferences for medical treatment.


Effective communication is at the heart of cultural understanding. Language, both spoken and unspoken, carries cultural nuances that influence interactions. Misinterpretations can occur when cultural context is overlooked.

Family Roles and Organization

Families serve as the cornerstone of many cultures, influencing dynamics, responsibilities, and gender roles. Understanding these aspects helps bridge intercultural relationships.

Workforce Issues

Workplace culture is influenced by cultural norms and values. Recognizing and respecting diverse work styles and expectations fosters a harmonious work environment.

Biocultural Ecology

The interplay between genetics, environment, and culture shapes our health. Understanding biocultural factors helps healthcare providers offer tailored medical care.

High-Risk Behaviors

Cultural attitudes towards risky behaviors can impact health outcomes. Cultural sensitivity is crucial when addressing issues like substance abuse and unsafe practices.


Dietary practices are deeply rooted in culture, with specific foods holding cultural significance. Recognizing food preferences and taboos is essential in healthcare and other contexts.

Pregnancy and Childbirth

Cultural beliefs and practices around pregnancy and childbirth can significantly impact healthcare decisions and maternal outcomes. Cultural competence is vital for providing respectful care.

Death Rituals

Death rituals vary across cultures, shaping mourning practices and beliefs about the afterlife. Understanding these rituals is essential for providing empathetic support.


Religious beliefs and spiritual practices play a profound role in cultural identity. Being aware of and respecting these beliefs fosters understanding and respect.

Healthcare Practices

Healthcare approaches vary widely based on cultural beliefs. Healthcare providers must be culturally competent to provide effective and respectful care.


Purnell’s 12 Domains of Culture offer a multifaceted lens through which we can understand cultural identity. By appreciating the significance of these domains, we foster meaningful connections and promote cultural sensitivity in various aspects of life.

The Relevance of the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence in Nursing Practice


As healthcare systems become more diverse, nurses play a pivotal role in delivering patient-centered care that respects and embraces cultural differences. The Purnell Model offers a structured approach to foster cultural competence among nurses, ultimately enhancing the quality of care provided.

Understanding Cultural Competence in Nursing

Cultural competence in nursing involves understanding, respecting, and effectively addressing the cultural backgrounds and beliefs of patients. It requires the ability to adapt care practices to align with patients’ values and preferences.

The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence

The Purnell Model comprises twelve domains that provide a holistic view of cultural identity. These domains encompass communication, family roles, nutrition, healthcare practices, spirituality, and more. This model encourages nurses to explore each domain to understand patients in their cultural context.

Relevance of the Purnell Model in Nursing Practice

Fostering Patient-Centered Care

The Purnell Model empowers nurses to view patients as unique individuals with rich cultural backgrounds. This perspective enables nurses to provide care that resonates with patients’ values, thus promoting patient-centeredness.

Effective Communication

Clear and empathetic communication is essential in nursing. The Purnell Model’s emphasis on language and communication domain equips nurses to bridge language barriers and enhance understanding between patients and healthcare providers.

Improving Health Outcomes

Cultural competence leads to better adherence to treatment plans. When nurses understand patients’ cultural beliefs about health and illness, they can collaboratively develop care plans that patients are more likely to follow.

Reducing Health Disparities

Cultural competence addresses health disparities by acknowledging the unique challenges various cultural groups face. By understanding these disparities, nurses can advocate for equitable care and support for all patients.

Implementing the Purnell Model in Nursing

Cultural Assessment

Nurses can use the Purnell Model as a guide for comprehensive cultural assessments. This includes understanding patients’ family structures, dietary preferences, spiritual beliefs, and more.

Developing Cultural Sensitivity

The model encourages nurses to develop cultural sensitivity by exploring and appreciating the nuances of different cultures. This helps nurses provide care without making assumptions based on stereotypes.

Tailoring Care Plans

Using the information gathered from cultural assessments, nurses can tailor care plans to align with patients’ cultural beliefs and practices. This promotes better engagement and cooperation.

Challenges and Considerations

Implementing cultural competence can be challenging due to time constraints and the complexity of cultural interactions. However, ongoing education and training can help nurses develop the necessary skills.


The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence holds immense relevance for nursing practice. By embracing cultural competence, nurses can provide care that is respectful, patient-centered, and effective, leading to improved health outcomes and a more inclusive healthcare environment.

cultural background

Cultural Competence Examples: Navigating Diversity in Everyday Scenarios

Cultural competence is the ability to interact effectively and respectfully with individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. It’s an essential skill in today’s interconnected world. Let’s explore some real-life examples that demonstrate cultural competence in action.


Cultural competence involves more than just tolerance; it’s about understanding and embracing differences. These examples illustrate how cultural competence can positively impact various aspects of life.

Example 1: Healthcare Communication

Imagine a nurse interacting with a patient from a different cultural background. To demonstrate cultural competence, the nurse:

  • Asks open-ended questions to understand the patient’s beliefs about illness and treatment.
  • Listens actively and without judgment to the patient’s concerns.
  • Uses appropriate language and avoids medical jargon.
  • Adapts care plans to align with the patient’s cultural preferences and dietary needs.

Example 2: Workplace Collaboration

In a diverse workplace, cultural competence fosters collaboration and harmony. For instance, a project team with members from different cultures:

  • Recognizes varying work styles and communication preferences.
  • Holds regular team discussions to ensure everyone’s voices are heard.
  • Respects different approaches to problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Celebrates cultural holidays and traditions, promoting inclusivity.

Example 3: Educational Inclusivity

In an inclusive classroom, a culturally competent teacher:

  • Incorporates diverse perspectives and authors into the curriculum.
  • Creates an environment where students feel safe expressing their cultural identities.
  • Designs assignments that allow students to connect their experiences with course content.
  • Addresses potential biases or stereotypes in teaching materials.

Example 4: Social Services

In social services, cultural competence ensures effective support for diverse clients. For instance, a social worker:

  • Takes time to understand the cultural context of a client’s situation.
  • Respects the client’s values and preferences when offering assistance.
  • Collaborates with community resources that align with the client’s cultural needs.
  • Advocates for policies that address the unique challenges faced by different cultural groups.


Cultural competence is not a one-size-fits-all approach; it’s about adapting to diverse contexts with respect and understanding. Whether in healthcare, the workplace, education, or social services, embracing cultural competence leads to more meaningful interactions, better outcomes, and a more inclusive society.

Exploring the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence: A Framework for Effective Healthcare

In the realm of healthcare, understanding and respecting diverse cultural backgrounds is essential for providing optimal care. The Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence offers a comprehensive framework that guides healthcare professionals in delivering culturally sensitive and effective services.

This article delves into the key components of the Campinha-Bacote Model and its significance in enhancing healthcare outcomes.


In healthcare, cultural competence is vital for providing equitable and patient-centered care. The Campinha-Bacote Model offers a structured approach that healthcare professionals can adopt to navigate the complexities of cultural interactions.

Understanding Cultural Competence in Healthcare

Cultural competence in healthcare involves recognizing and respecting the cultural beliefs, values, and practices of patients. It ensures that care is delivered in a way that aligns with patients’ preferences and backgrounds.

The Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence

The Campinha-Bacote Model comprises five constructs that guide healthcare professionals in developing cultural competence. These constructs provide a holistic approach to understanding and interacting with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Five Constructs of Cultural Competence

Cultural Awareness

Cultural awareness involves recognizing one’s own biases, values, and assumptions about culture. It’s the foundation of cultural competence, as healthcare professionals must first understand their own perspectives before engaging with others.

Cultural Knowledge

Cultural knowledge entails actively seeking information about different cultures. Healthcare providers should educate themselves about cultural practices, health beliefs, and potential barriers to care within various communities.

Cultural Skill

Cultural skill involves applying cultural knowledge in practice. Healthcare professionals need the ability to adapt their communication and care strategies to accommodate cultural differences.

Cultural Encounters

Cultural encounters refer to direct interactions with patients from diverse backgrounds. These encounters provide opportunities for healthcare providers to learn from their patients and refine their cultural competence.

Cultural Desire

Cultural desire is the motivation to provide culturally competent care. It’s the genuine wish to understand and engage with patients in a way that respects their cultural identities.

Applying the Campinha-Bacote Model in Healthcare

Enhancing Patient-Centered Care

By embracing cultural competence, healthcare providers ensure that patients receive care tailored to their individual needs and cultural preferences. This enhances patient satisfaction and engagement.

Improving Communication

Cultural competence improves communication by recognizing language barriers, nonverbal cues, and cultural norms that influence interactions. Effective communication is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Reducing Health Disparities

Cultural competence plays a vital role in addressing health disparities that affect marginalized and minority communities. By understanding cultural factors that impact health, healthcare professionals can work towards reducing disparities.

Challenges and Considerations

Implementing the Campinha-Bacote Model requires ongoing education, self-awareness, and a commitment to continuous improvement. Healthcare professionals may encounter challenges in understanding and adapting to diverse cultural backgrounds.


The Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence provides a structured and comprehensive framework for healthcare professionals to deliver culturally sensitive and effective care. By embracing the model’s constructs, healthcare providers can enhance patient outcomes, improve communication, and contribute to a more equitable healthcare system.

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