Last Updated on February 15, 2023 by Admin
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Vector-Related Diseases Affecting Kansas Community
Vectors are organisms that have the capability of transmitting diseases among animals. They perform these actions through blood sucking, fluid release among other techniques (Rao, 2017). Mosquitoes are widely known as vectors of the malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum in humans), as they transmit it effectively across human beings and across different organisms.
Vector-borne diseases can also be due to transmission of viruses and bacteria through the bites of snails, lice, ticks, tsetse flies, among others. There is an annual global death toll of over 700,000 from diseases that are as a result of the action of these vectors (Rao, 2017). Tropical and sub-tropical areas are more affected by these diseases, and the poor populations are also at higher risk of being unable to fight these diseases.
Also, the presence of various environmental and social elements affect the distribution of vector-borne diseases. For instance, overcrowded places are likely to suffer more effects of an outbreak of a vector-borne disease compared to less crowded places. Climate change, as well as shifts in agricultural practices can also be great determinants of the spread of vector-borne diseases. In Kansas, mosquitoes and ticks are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases, with West Nile Virus and Rickettsiosis being the top diseases they cause respectively.
Current Health Concerns in Kansas
Besides the high rates of obesity, cancer, and lower respiratory disease that affect Kansas, vector borne diseases in the state are in the rise. The environment in which people live greatly affects the spread of certain diseases (Zhao, 2017). Recently, there has been a lot of evidence that Kansas is among the leading states with numerous environmental hazards that are responsible for causing disease. A considerable number of diseases in the state, however, remain to be attached to genetic factors.
According to Kansas Health Institute, KHI, (2018) the common environmental hazards in the State include pesticides, ambient air contaminated with mercury, nitrites, and arsenic in drinking water, as well as numerous vectors of diseases such as malaria and rickettiosis.
While critical measures of information are right now being gathered (for the most part by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment), the data is commonly used to screen and implement government and state natural quality guidelines (World Health Organization, 2017). A populace based way to deal with natural medical problems will require more grounded ecological wellbeing epidemiologic limit, top to bottom investigation of the accessible data, extra data on the markers of uncommon premium not right now secured by existing projects and linkage of the data on ecological perils with the circulation of related wellbeing results in the state.
With these frameworks set up, the state’s ecological wellbeing needs could be better surveyed and needs for mediation distinguished. Intercessions may incorporate open data crusades (for instance, safeguards to take when the air quality records fall beneath security edges), network level mediations (for instance, empowering the advancement and utilization of individual transportation options in networks with outside air quality issues) or instructive exercises on best practices to oversee wellbeing conditions exacerbated by presentation to ecological dangers.
Environmental Risk Assessment Methods in Public Health Issues
There are various methods that researchers often use to assess the impacts of environmental hazards on human life. Two of the main techniques include the tiered approach, where there is the PNEC health assessment and the probabilistic risk assessment; and the biology-based risk assessment, used where more specific information is needed among species.
In the biology based risk assessment. The specific toxic properties and systems in species are the main concerns of the assessments on the stressor. The two methods also involve characterization of the severity and the specific biological effects that are brought by the environmental health hazards.
New Modifier/ Prevention Program for Kansas Vector-Borne Diseases
The fact that there has been over 100% rise in the tick-borne diseases in Kansas is evident enough that affirmative action has to be taken. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2017), there were 250 tick-borne diseases and 75 mosquito borne diseases in 2016 alone.
It is therefore clear that the state needs to establish different affirmative action for ensuring the safety of its people against these diseases. In the new program, different ways of exterminating the disease vectors or making them be less harmful to human beings have been suggested.
The first element of the program is installing the smart mosquito traps in public places and the most affected areas. In the current digital era, it is important that the challenges present be presented with solutions in a digital way. The smart mosquito trap is one of these powerful inventions that is capable of capturing only the harmful mosquitoes in the environment.
That is, it carefully selects the mosquitoes that can spread zika virus and leaves others that are harmless. The tool was developed by Microsoft, and has an accuracy of 80% (World Health Organization, 2017). Besides saving time, the method is advantageous in that researchers can use the data collected to study the behavior of insects, and hence make it easier to handle outbreaks. This method would reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases in Kansas by over 50%.
A second approach in the program is including special repellants such as DEET in different products that people in Kansas use such as sunscreen, facial oil, and even hair applications. These repellants should be designed in a way they do not affect the initial purpose of the product, while still maintaining their powerful effect.
They are effective in preventing tick-borne diseases, as ticks will be less likely to find an opportunity to thrive. With the decreased ability to reproduce, it is expected that the ticks will slowly be faced out of the system, and the few remaining will not reach the threshold of causing diseases (World Health Organization, 2017).
Another innovation that can be applied in fighting these vector-borne environmental hazards in Kansas is the use of Wolbachia, a bacterium that reduces mosquito populations and stops deadly viruses from growing (Dutra et al., 2016). This technique is mostly recommended because of the fact that it is environmental friendly, and can lead to the trigger of a self-sustaining ecosystem.
Most mosquitoes have this virus, but some that are involved in the transmission of diseases do not have the bacterium. Introducing it in the insects helps prevent or completely stop the growth of human viruses. Also, introducing Wolbachia-filled males in an ecosystem reduces the chance of reproduction of the mosquitoes, and hence lowering population and the chances of spreading these diseases.
Vaccination of the population against mosquito and tick-borne diseases should be done, using the AGS-v vaccine that triggers immune response of human beings to mosquito saliva, preventing infection with the virus embedded in it.
Sample Program Budget
|Smart Mosquito traps||$110,000|
The program contains several strengths and weaknesses, and is faced by a number of threats and opportunities as well. To begin with, the strengths include the high workability of the program elements, the availability of technical expertise, and the short time-frame requirement of implementing the program.
Unlike most other state health programs, there is very little time lapse between proposal and implementation, of course while all factors remain constant. The program is also highly workable as the necessary technology and expertise is readily available. The opportunities present with the program is that through selling the ideas to other states and other parts of the world, the program can become self-funding, reducing the financial burden for the state.
Some of the threats of the program include the fact that the federal government may not be willing to part with such a large amount of money in simple projects to prevent vector-borne diseases. There is a high likelihood that some of the decision makers may not be inclined to the idea of prevention rather than cure.
A possible weakness of the program is that the repellants and the vaccines may already have become resistant among the population, and in order to make them safe from these vectors, they may need an entirely different approach. In conclusion, environmental quality departments need to take seriously the prevention of vector-borne diseases in Kansas, as cure will always have higher costs.
Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Kansas: Vector-borne Diseases Profile (2004-2016). National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)
Dutra, H. L. C., Rocha, M. N., Dias, F. B. S., Mansur, S. B., Caragata, E. P., & Moreira, L. A. (2016). Wolbachia blocks currently circulating Zika virus isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Cell host & microbe, 19(6), 771-774.
Rao, A. M. K. M. (2017). Trends of vector borne diseases in the west and likely climate impact. International Pest Control, 59(4), 202-204.
World Health Organization. (2017). Design of epidemiological trials for vector control products: report of a WHO expert advisory group, Château de Penthes, Geneva, 24-25 April 2017 (No. WHO/HTM/NTD/VEM/2017.04). World Health Organization.
Zhao, S. (2017). Spontaneous changes of human behaviors and intervention strategies: human and animal diseases (Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University).
Related Answered Questions
Web based injury statistics query and reporting system
The Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) is an online tool developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. It allows users to access and analyze injury-related data in the form of statistics, graphs, and maps.
The system contains a vast amount of data on fatal and nonfatal injuries that occur in the United States, including information on the causes, types, and locations of injuries, as well as demographic and geographic information about the people who are injured. Users can search for specific data by using various filters such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, injury intent, and geographic location.
The data in WISQARS is collected from a variety of sources, including death certificates, hospital records, and surveillance systems. The system provides users with access to data from different time periods and allows them to compare injury-related data across different groups or over time.
WISQARS also allows users to generate customized reports and visualizations, including tables, charts, and maps. This makes it a valuable tool for researchers, public health professionals, policymakers, and anyone else who needs injury-related data to inform decision-making or to understand injury patterns and trends.
Overall, the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System is a powerful and comprehensive tool for accessing and analyzing injury-related data in the United States. Its user-friendly interface and customizable features make it accessible to a wide range of users with varying levels of expertise in injury-related data analysis.
What is WISQARS
WISQARS stands for Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. It is an online tool developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States that provides access to injury-related data in the form of statistics, graphs, and maps. WISQARS contains a vast amount of data on fatal and nonfatal injuries that occur in the United States, including information on the causes, types, and locations of injuries, as well as demographic and geographic information about the people who are injured.
Users can search for specific data by using various filters such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, injury intent, and geographic location. WISQARS also allows users to generate customized reports and visualizations, making it a valuable tool for researchers, public health professionals, policymakers, and anyone else who needs injury-related data to inform decision-making or to understand injury patterns and trends.
CDC gun violence database
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States maintains a database on gun violence through the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). This system is a state-based surveillance system that collects detailed information on violent deaths, including those involving firearms.
The NVDRS is a collaborative effort between the CDC and state health departments. It collects data on violent deaths from multiple sources, including death certificates, coroner and medical examiner reports, and law enforcement records. This system provides detailed information on the circumstances surrounding each violent death, including the type of firearm used, the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, and the location and time of the incident.
The data collected by the NVDRS is used to identify patterns and trends in gun violence and to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The CDC also provides access to data from the NVDRS through the “Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System” (WISQARS) website. WISQARS allows users to generate customized reports and visualizations of gun violence data based on various filters, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, and geographic location.
In addition to the NVDRS, the CDC also conducts research on gun violence and provides funding for research on the causes and prevention of gun violence. The CDC’s work on gun violence is part of its broader efforts to promote public health and prevent injuries and deaths.