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ANSWERED!! In 4 or 5 sentences describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system

In 4 or 5 sentences describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system

Assignment: Short Answer Assessment

As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, before you can recommend potential pharmacotherapeutics to address a patient’s condition or disorder, you must understand the basic function and structure of the neuron and central nervous system. For this Assignment, you will review and apply your understanding of neuroanatomy by addressing a set of short answer prompts.

To Prepare:

    • Review the Learning Resources for this week in preparation to complete this Assignment.
    • Reflect on the basic function and structure of the neuron in relation to the central nervous system.
    • Reflect on the inter-connectedness between neurons and the central nervous system, including the pathway and distribution of electrical impulses.
    • Reflect on how neurons communicate with each other and review the concept of neuroplasticity.

To complete:

Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.

  1. In 4 or 5 sentences describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
  2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
    • What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
    • Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
    • What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
  3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
  4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
  5. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6630_Week1_Assignment_Rubric

  Excellent

Point range: 90–100

Good

Point range: 80–89

Fair

Point range: 70–79

Poor

Point range: 0–69

In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous sytem, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly describes in detail the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately and clearly describes in detail each part of the neuron, and it includes a detailed explanation of the general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately describes the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately describes each part of the neuron, and it includes a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response provides an inaccurate or vague description of the anatomy of the neuron. The response inaccurately or vaguely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response provides an inaccurate or incomplete description of the anatomy of the neuron, or is missing. The response inaccurately or incompletely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):

a. What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
c. What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly details the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response accurately and clearly details which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response accurately and clearly identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response accurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response accurately identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response inaccurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response inaccurately identifies two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures, or is missing.

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction, or is missing.

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies two neurotransmitters in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control, or is missing.

In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs, or is missing.

In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples provided fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples provided support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 75

Name: NURS_6630_Week1_Assignment_Rubric

 

ANSWER

Introduction to Neuroanatomy

Anatomy of Nervous System

The nervous system consists of the spinal cord, nerves, brain, and ganglia. The neuron is the basic unit of the CNS. The neuron has three parts: the cell body (soma), dendrites, and axon (Mertens, Reid, Lau, Kim & Gage, 2018). The neuron receives input from other body cells through dendrites, also known as the neuron branches. The neuron sends messages to each other through an axon using an electrical messaging known as an action potential. Axon also is used to releasing neurotransmitters to the rest of the body from the spine, the small protrusions located on the dendrites (Camprodon & Roffman, 2016). The spine often acts as the contact point. The soma is where the neuron proteins are made and where its DNA is located.

Questions

1. Major Components of Subcortical Structures 

The subcortical structures have a diencephalon, consisting of thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, and epithalamus, pituitary gland, basal ganglia, and a limbic system consisting of the hippocampus.

2. Components for Learning, Memory, and Addiction 

The hippocampus is responsible for the recognition and episodic memory. The component also encodes declarative memory (Lindahl et al., 2018). The basal ganglia and hippocampus are also involved in learning and addiction. In summary, the subcortical structures in the cerebrum are involved in learning, memory, and addiction.

3. Neurotransmitters Located in Nigrostriatal 

The two key neurotransmitters located in the nigrostriatal responsible for motor control include GABA and dopamine (Camprodon & Roffman). Dopamine receives information from axons and transmitted it to GABA, which sends the messages to the spine.

Functions of Glia Cells

The glia cells are found in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system. The cells do not produce electrical impulses. The glia cells in the CNS include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal. In the peripheral nervous system, the glia cells include satellite cells and Schwann cells. The glia cells have four key functions, including:

  • To hold the neurons in place by surrounding them.
  • To supply oxygen and nutrients to the neurons.
  • To prevent the neurons from coming into contact with each other by insulating them.
  • To remove dead neurons and destroy pathogens. Mertens et al. (2018) argue that the glial cells are also vital in synaptic connections and neurotransmission.

Communication Between the Neurons

The neuron has three parts, including the soma, dendrites, and axon. The parts of the neuron involved in communication are the dendrites and the axon. The axon is responsible for propagating the nerve impulse that is communicated to one or more cells. In other words, the axon is responsible for communicating messages to other body cells through the synapse. On the other hand, the dendrites are responsible for receiving messages from one of many cells through the synapse and send it to the contact point. Communication enters the neuron through dendrites and leaves it through the axon. The dendrites also provide locations for other neurons that can receive communication from the body cells.

Neuroplasticity 

Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain neural pathways to transform through reorganization and growth. The changes can be impacted by human behavior, neural process, environment, and learning (Mattson, Moehl, Ghena, Schmaedick & Cheng, 2018). During neuroplasticity, the brain can engage in synaptic pruning and deletes pathways that are no longer significant. Cortical remapping is one of the examples of neuroplasticity. Cortical remapping is where the original map is impacted by a factor leading to creating a new map. Network and circuit changes resulting from new learning can also be viewed as neuroplasticity.

References

Camprodon, J. A., & Roffman, J. L. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1–19). Elsevier.

Lindahl, M., Chalazonitis, A., Palm, E., Pakarinen, E., Danilova, T., Pham, T. D., … & Kopra, J. (2020). Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor–deficiency leads to degeneration of enteric neurons and altered brain dopamine neuronal function in mice. Neurobiology of disease, 134, 104696. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969996119303717

Mattson, M. P., Moehl, K., Ghena, N., Schmaedick, M., & Cheng, A. (2018). Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 19(2), 63. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrn.2017.156

Mertens, J., Reid, D., Lau, S., Kim, Y., & Gage, F. H. (2018). Aging in a dish: iPSC-derived and directly induced neurons for studying brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Annual review of genetics, 52, 271-293. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031534?casa_token=KQSzIElK4CcAAAAA:JId36W5mm-fjP4_O56VVzq9FiCMRmqzQnBKNvdWrVOO31vhd-pZ5JNRejrrXA2TOvtLxbh39lGJ-

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