Last Updated on April 6, 2023 by Admin
Discuss at least three symptoms caused by physiologic changes and consequences of GERD and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Discuss the findings for each disorder
Discuss at least three symptoms caused by physiologic changes and consequences of GERD and peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
Locate at least one scholarly source that addresses this topic in support of your perspective in a 250-word initial post. Two peer response posts should include at a minimum 100 words, to extend the discussion.
Expert Answer and Explanation
GERD and Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
Both gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are disorders related to high acid levels in the gut system. A person experiencing GERD can demonstrate symptoms such as a burning sensation in the chest area, that frequents after eating or at night (Wei et al., 2020). Additional symptoms include regurgitation of food, chest pain, and difficulties in swallowing. On the other hand, symptoms associated with PUD include a burning sensation in the stomach intolerance to fatty foods, nausea, bloating, feeling of fulness, and occasional heartburn.
Finding for Each Disorder
The symptoms of GERD can be explained due to the regurgitation or reflux of food from the stomach to the esophagus leading to a burning sensation to the outer lining. With PUD, the burning feeling in the stomach is a result of painful sores usually attributed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) (Wei et al., 2020). While the two disorders are caused by acid fluctuation, they have different symptoms due to the mechanism in which they present or regions that are affected.
Impact of Pharmaceutical Treatment
Histamine-2 receptor blocker is a pharmaceutical treatment for PUD as they get rapidly absorbed by the body. The medication works by suppressing the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach which inhibits the symptoms of the disorder (Park et al., 2020). The suppression only lasts a few hours which is essential to help mitigate the pain.
The treatment can also be used when dealing with GERD which also makes use of antacids and ranitidine. These medications also which work the same way as the Histamine-2 receptor blockers by suppressing the production of stomach acid (Park et al., 2020). The inhibition of acid production helps the gut system to heal before the acid continues to be released again. In general, there is a low potential drug-drug interaction rate for the medication.
Park, J. H., Lee, J., Yu, S. Y., Jung, J. H., Han, K., Kim, D. H., & Rhee, J. (2020). Comparing Proton Pump Inhibitors With Histamin-2 Receptor Blockers Regarding The Risk Of Osteoporotic Fractures: A Nested Case-Control Study Of More Than 350,000 Korean Patients With GERD And Peptic Ulcer Disease. BMC Geriatrics, 20(1), 1-11.
Wei, C. Y., Tzeng, I., Lin, M. C., Yeh, Y. H., Hsu, C. Y., & Kung, W. M. (2020). Risks Of Sulpiride-Induced Parkinsonism In Peptic Ulcer And Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients In Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Frontiers In Pharmacology, 11, 433.
Place your order now for the similar assignment and get fast, cheap and best quality work written by our expert level assignment writers.
Use Coupon Code: NEW30 to Get 30% OFF Your First Order
Related Answered Questions
[SOLVED] Sabrina is a 26 year old female who has just been
SOLVED! An 83-year-old resident of a skilled nursing
SOLVED!! Describe the clinical manifestations present in
What are some strategies you can use to help clients
SOLVED!! Develop 3–4 new SMART goals for this quarter and
[ANSWERED] What is the significance of the product lifecycle
ANSWERED! In this project you will select an organization or
Answered! Read Case 2.1: Hacking into Harvard, located on page 71 in your textbook. As applicants began to defend themselves against
pathophysiology of peptic ulcer pdf, pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease, literature review on peptic ulcer disease, peptic ulcer disease symptoms, etiology of peptic ulcer, types of peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer pathophysiology, pathophysiology of peptic ulcer wikipedia
Pathophysiology of Peptic Ulcer Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by the presence of open sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine. These ulcers can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and nausea. In this article, we will discuss the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease, including its causes, symptoms, and treatment.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common digestive disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The term “peptic” refers to the digestive juices that are produced in the stomach and small intestine. When the protective lining of the stomach and small intestine is damaged or eroded, the digestive juices can irritate the tissue underneath and cause an ulcer to form.
Anatomy of the Stomach and Small Intestine
To understand the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease, it is important to have a basic understanding of the anatomy of the stomach and small intestine. The stomach is a muscular sac that receives food from the esophagus and mixes it with digestive juices. The small intestine is a long, narrow tube that absorbs nutrients from the food and moves it into the bloodstream.
Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of peptic ulcer disease. These include:
Helicobacter pylori Infection
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that can infect the stomach and small intestine. It is a common cause of peptic ulcer disease and is found in up to 90% of cases. H. pylori can weaken the protective lining of the stomach and small intestine, making it more susceptible to damage from digestive juices.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a type of medication that is commonly used to treat pain and inflammation. However, they can also irritate the lining of the stomach and small intestine and increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer disease.
Smoking can also increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer disease. It can weaken the protective lining of the stomach and small intestine and decrease blood flow to these areas, making them more susceptible to damage.
Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease
The symptoms of peptic ulcer disease can vary depending on the location and severity of the ulcer. Common symptoms include:
- Abdominal pain or discomfort
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
In severe cases, peptic ulcer disease can cause complications such as bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the stomach or small intestine.
Diagnosis of Peptic Ulcer Disease
The diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease usually involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. These tests may include:
- Upper endoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the mouth and into the stomach and small intestine to examine the lining for ulcers.
- Barium swallow: A procedure in which a patient drinks a solution containing barium, which coats the lining of the stomach and small intestine and allows for X-ray imaging.
- Stool antigen test: A test that detects the presence of H. pylori in the stool.
Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease
The treatment of peptic ulcer disease depends on the cause and severity of the ulcer. Treatment options may include:
Medications are often used to treat peptic ulcer disease. These may include:
- Antibiotics: if the ulcer is caused by an H. pylori infection, a course of antibiotics may be prescribed to eliminate the bacteria.
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): these medications reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, allowing the ulcer to heal. Examples of PPIs include omeprazole, lansoprazole, and esomeprazole.
- H2 blockers: these medications also reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Examples include ranitidine and famotidine.
- Antacids: these medications neutralize the acid in the stomach, providing temporary relief from symptoms.
In addition to medication, certain lifestyle changes may help to manage peptic ulcer disease. These may include:
- Avoiding foods that trigger symptoms, such as spicy or acidic foods.
- Quitting smoking, which can irritate the lining of the stomach and small intestine.
- Limiting alcohol consumption, which can also irritate the lining of the stomach and small intestine.
- Managing stress, as stress can worsen symptoms of peptic ulcer disease.
In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to treat peptic ulcer disease. This may be recommended if the ulcer is not responding to medication, or if there is a risk of complications such as bleeding or perforation. Surgical options may include:
- Endoscopic therapy: a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the mouth and into the stomach and small intestine. The doctor can then use instruments to stop bleeding or seal the ulcer.
- Ulcer excision: a surgical procedure in which the ulcer is removed and the remaining tissue is repaired.
- Vagotomy: a procedure in which the nerves that control the production of stomach acid are cut, reducing the amount of acid produced.
Peptic ulcer disease is a common digestive disorder that can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and nausea. The development of ulcers in the lining of the stomach and small intestine is caused by a variety of factors, including H. pylori infection, NSAID use, and smoking. Treatment options include medication, lifestyle changes, and, in rare cases, surgery. If you are experiencing symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Types of Peptic Ulcer
Peptic ulcer disease can occur in different parts of the digestive system. The two main types of peptic ulcer are:
A gastric ulcer is an ulcer that develops in the lining of the stomach. Gastric ulcers can cause symptoms such as:
- Abdominal pain, often located in the upper part of the abdomen
- Loss of appetite
- Feeling full after eating small amounts of food
A duodenal ulcer is an ulcer that develops in the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. Duodenal ulcers can cause symptoms such as:
- Abdominal pain, often located in the upper part of the abdomen and occurring a few hours after eating
- Loss of appetite
- Feeling full after eating small amounts of food
Other Types of Peptic Ulcer
In addition to gastric and duodenal ulcers, peptic ulcers can also occur in other parts of the digestive system. These include:
- Esophageal ulcers: ulcers that occur in the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Esophageal ulcers can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing and chest pain.
- Meckel’s diverticulum ulcers: ulcers that occur in a small pouch in the wall of the intestine known as Meckel’s diverticulum. These ulcers can cause abdominal pain and bleeding.
- Gastrojejunal ulcers: ulcers that occur where the stomach and small intestine connect, after certain types of stomach surgeries. These ulcers can cause abdominal pain and nausea.
Peptic ulcer disease can occur in different parts of the digestive system, including the stomach, duodenum, esophagus, and small intestine. The two main types of peptic ulcer are gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, which can cause a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, and loss of appetite. Other types of peptic ulcer are less common but can still cause significant symptoms and complications. If you are experiencing symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.