This week’s first assignment is STEP 3 – Literature Review and Critical Appraisal.
The student will complete the following items and submit a Word doc to the assignment link.
- Provide a title that conveys or describes the assignment.
- Literature Review – Provide the key terms used to guide the search for the evidence and provide at least five (5) summaries of research studies to support the evidence.
- Critical Appraisal of Literature – Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence, what is known from the evidence and any gaps in knowledge from the research evidence.
- References – Cite a minimum of five scholarly references in APA 7th ed format.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Intervention Protocol to Improve Adult Vaccination Rates
Reminders through messages and calls are some of the effective but highly underutilized methods that improve adult vaccination and reduce mortality rates among individuals. Development of centralized reminder centers and dispatching accurate information to individuals scheduled for vaccination has proven to increase vaccination rates and reduced mortality from vaccinatable diseases (Hurley et al., 2018). The experimental study is carried out among adults between 19-64 years without high-risk conditions needing influenza, diphtheria, tetanus, or acellular pertussis shots, and older adults above 65 years with high-risk condition needing similar vaccinations were sent three reminders and recalls randomly. The outcome of the study showed that reminders increased influenza vaccinations among adults aged above 65 years without the risk of burdening medical practices or increasing cost for the activity. Therefore, a maximum of three reminders to adults scheduled for vaccinations improves the turn up rates without straining healthcare institutions or increasing overall costs.
According to Mark Doherty, Giuseppe, & Stefania, (2019), vaccination should be viewed as a medical intervention for health promotion among adults. Vaccination programs among children are scheduled regardless of the health condition of the child. It is therefore a strategy to promote quality life among children as opposed to a medical intervention as it is among adults. Overall, global population is increasing thus an increase in the aging population as well. To maintain a healthy older population, strategies ought to be put in place to promote vaccination rates among young and aging adults. To achieve this, adults should be educated on the importance of vaccinations as ways to improve life quality so that they are able to prevent diseases as opposed to curing, which is strenuous to the health facilities and to finances. In addition to vaccination programs, they should also be educated about maintaining quality diets and exercising.
The study by Srivastav et al., (2018) is an online survey carried to determine the under-utilization of adult vaccines in the society. According to the study, Vaccines are proven to reduce morbidity and mortality among individuals across all ages. The observation is carried out among US citizens whereby a small percentage of the adult populations is aware of these vaccines. This means that they lack the knowledge about existing vaccines and how they are scheduled for the patients. Clinicians and pharmacist also lack knowledge of these vaccines thus making it difficult to educate adults concerning the same. Therefore, one of the proposed interventions according to the study is to educate clinicians and pharmacist on available adult vaccines to enable them to pass the knowledge on to the patients that they interact. Also, they should be in a position to advice patients on health facilities that adults should visit and get access to these vaccines.
According to Prins et al., (2017), inequality in adult vaccination programs is gradually increasing in the US. The aim of the study is to understand the source of disparities among minorities in the US and provide solutions to mend the existing gap. The study is an internet survey whereby data is collected to identify tools and resources available to support adult immunization programs and where they are mostly emphasized in the US. The findings show that information concerning influenza vaccinations is issued to the majority populations while the minorities lack access to the information. Therefore, one of the major intervention towards increasing adult vaccination rates, is reducing the gap between the majority and minority through educating them equality and providing vaccination centers equally.
The study focuses on HPV vaccination programs that were launched in 97 countries by 2017. The vaccination program is part of the adult vaccination intervention as the first dose is offered to girls before reaching 15 years. HPV vaccination is tested and proven to prevent cervical cancer among women yet it still remains underutilized (Zimet, & Osazuwa-Peters, 2019). According to the survey, social media and the internet offer a platform to spread false information concerning the virus thus a reduced acceptability rate of the vaccine among women and girls. Clinicians and researchers therefore have a difficult time trying to campaign on the importance and the eligibility of the vaccine. However, the study views social media and internet as a platform for intervention and increasing vaccine awareness to increase vaccine rates among adults.
Critical Appraisal of Literature
The selected articles will provide information that is relevant to the research study and help find intervention protocols recommended to increase vaccination rates among adults. The first article emphasizes on the importance of sending reminders and messages to adults scheduled to receive vaccinations. Based on this article, reminders and recalls have shown an increase in vaccination rats and promoted stability in vaccination centers as well as stability in the overall costs. However, the study shows that older adults above 65 years responded better to reminders as opposed to younger adults. Therefore, the study may not have similar results when addressing younger populations.
The second article insists on offering vaccines as strategies to promote health and improve quality of life among individuals. This would be different from offering vaccines as medical interventions. The research study shows that most people would respond better when they are advised that vaccines helps to promote good life as it prevents them from illnesses. However, the intervention strategy may not yield results among individuals without pre-existing conditions, as they would believe that they have stronger immunities thus find no need to receive adult vaccinations. Therefore, further research ought to be carried out to ensure patients with pre-existing conditions and those without respond the same to the intervention strategy.
The third article clinicians and pharmacists play a vital role towards increasing awareness of adult vaccines. They are thought to interact closely with target adults for the vaccines thus the need to educate them concerning the same. Educating healthcare providers who will in turn offer education about adult vaccines to the patients and will help improve the adult vaccination rates globally. The intervention strategy may work among individuals with pre-existing conditions and those who visit healthcare facilities frequently. Those who do not visit these facilities frequently may miss important vaccines schedules thus filling the knowledge gap.
The fourth article bases its findings on the issue of medical inequality/ minimum access to adult vaccines among minority populations in the US. The study is carried out focusing on the minority populations who lack the informational materials and resources for adult vaccines. However, there is an existing gap in the research study, as it does not offer solutions on how to reduce the gap that is caused by racial factors. In the US minority populations lack proper access to general medical services. This means that educating minorities about the existence of adult vaccines may not be a solution towards increasing adult vaccine rates. Further research on how to minimize social and economic gaps may be necessary.
The fifth article emphasizes on using social media and the internet as a platform to educate individuals about HPV vaccine. Based on the research, negative use of the social media platform has led to ignorance concerning the vaccine. Therefore, an assumption made shows that these platform can be used positively and help promote consumption of HPV as well as other existing adult Vaccines. However, a gap exists whereby the target population may lack proper access to accurate information on these platforms. They may not be in a position to discern false information from the truth about adult vaccines.
Hurley, L. P., Beaty, B., Lockhart, S., Gurfinkel, D., Breslin, K., Dickinson, M., Whittington, M. D., Roth, H., & Kempe, A. (2018). RCT of Centralized Vaccine Reminder/Recall for Adults. American journal of preventive medicine, 55(2), 231–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.022
Prins, W., Butcher, E., Hall, L. L., Puckrein, G., & Rosof, B. (2017). Improving adult immunization equity: Where do the published research literature and existing resources lead?. Vaccine, 35(23), 3020–3025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.02.016
- Mark Doherty, Giuseppe Del Giudice & Stefania Maggi (2019) Adult vaccination as part of a healthy lifestyle: moving from medical intervention to health promotion, Annals of Medicine, 51:2, 128-140 Doi: 10.1080/07853890.2019.1588470
Srivastav, A., Black, C. L., Lutz, C. S., Fiebelkorn, A. P., Ball, S. W., Devlin, R., Pabst, L. J., Williams, W. W., & Kim, D. K. (2018). U.S. clinicians’ and pharmacists’ reported barriers to implementation of the Standards for Adult Immunization Practice. Vaccine, 36(45), 6772–6781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.09.024
Zimet, G. D., & Osazuwa-Peters, N. (2019). There’s Much Yet to be Done: Diverse Perspectives on HPV Vaccination. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 15(7-8), 1459–1464. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1640559
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