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Sample Article Critique

Article Critique

Primary Sources

Bode, A. M., & Dong, Z. (2009). Cancer prevention research—then and now. Nature Reviews Cancer9(7), 508.

The goals of the study were not defined clearly, but the model was given a little direction regarding the study. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but had a typical framework. The description of the study was precisely given, but the location of the study was questionable. The design of the study was described clearly initially in the form of an abstract. The data collection instruments were not specific, but at some places, sources were described from time to time.Neither, the reliability nor the validity was given for the instruments because the instruments themselves were not stated clearly. The results do not address the study hypothesis having any evident statistical analysis. The conclusion of the studies was not reasonable in the light of data analyzed because there were many limitations in the study so it must be rejected. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not specified. The study implications were not useful because there was bias in the study analysis.

Cam, A., Oyirifi, A. B., Liu, Y., Haschek, W. M., Iwaniec, U. T., Turner, R. T., … & Helferich, W. G. (2019). Thermally Abused Frying Oil Potentiates Metastasis to Lung in a Murine Model of Late-Stage Breast Cancer. Cancer Prevention Research.

No, the goals/aims of the prevention study were not distinct because the study was limited to a single source of food items whereas the goal should be set universally on the various food items.The research questions/hypothesis was momentarily given in accordance with both quantitative as well as the qualitative concern of ingredients in the diet of the chosen individuals.The description and location are stated with utmost transparency with the description being thorough, and location provided regarding every source attained for the study.The design and location were provided in the initial set-up of the study by generalizing about the concept of experimenting on animals and the reaction of the animal body on consumption of fumes of violated fried oil.The data collection instruments were given in much detail along with the source of collection.

The validity and reliability were not reported in the article, but the measurement techniques have been discussed.The results directly imply the hypothesis of the study and are evident in the form of the histologic analysis of the metastases.The conclusions were much reasonable that gave way to many theories that can be held responsible for the precancerous conditions in people. However, there is no crystal-clear extrapolation of the findings to a population that is similar to the population studied, but the facts have been derived from the study to be applied with a universal approach.The study implications were much acceptable for future references to the population served, as it has initiated awareness among people regarding the use of soybean oil as well as the misuse of fried oil thermally.

Chao, A., Thun, M. J., Jacobs, E. J., Henley, S. J., Rodriguez, C., & Calle, E. E. (2000). Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer mortality in the cancer prevention study II. Journal of the National Cancer Institute92(23), 1888-1896.

The goals of the study were defined clearly along with the statistical analysis, and the hypothesis was stated methodologically. The description of the study was precisely given thoroughly, but the location of the study was labeled as nationwide. The design of the study was described clearly initially in the form of an abstract. The data collection instruments were very specific and were discussed in detail. Both the reliability or the validity were given for the instruments, clearly suggesting the role of instruments in the study. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving the relationship of smoking with the development of cancer. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because cigarette smoking has a great impact on the health of the individuals. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was highly prone to the risk of developing cancer. The study implications were meaningful to the whole nation widely.

Cuzick, J., Forbes, J., Edwards, R., Baum, M., Cawthorn, S., Coates, A., … & Powles, T. (2002). First results from the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I): a randomised prevention trial. Lancet (London, England)360(9336), 817-824.

The goals of the study were well defined with precise direction of achievement. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way stating the chosen patients were at high risk of breast cancer. The description of the study was given including several participants, but the location of the study was doubtful. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were not provided, but the cessation of some drugs was discussed. The reliability or validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the risk factors were reported. The results do not address the study hypothesis by proving the high mortality rate due to breast cancer with complex etiology. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as the drug discussed was proven to have no role in enhancing the cancerous condition. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was highly prone to the risk of developing cancer. The study implications were meaningful to some extent, but more research is essential.

Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., Davis, M. E., Eisen, E. A., & Smith, T. J. (2012). Lung cancer and elemental carbon exposure in trucking industry workers. Environmental health perspectives120(9), 1301-1306

The goals of the study were defined clearly in the very beginning by relating smoking with radon.The hypothesis was not given distinctly, for the study did not last very long. The description of the study was given but very limited and the location of the study was not mentioned.The design of the study was described in taking into account the various causes that might cause lung cancer.The data collection instruments were nonspecific and were not included at all.The reliability and the validity were not given for the instruments; instead only the prime factors were discussed. The results could not address the study hypothesis due to the insignificant findings concerning the relationship between radon and smoking. The conclusion of the studies was not reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the findings were inappropriate.There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not mentioned.The study implications were not enough to the researchers, and further studies were required to establish the facts of the study.

Lewis, J. D., Ferrara, A., Peng, T., Hedderson, M., Bilker, W. B., Quesenberry, C. P., … & Strom, B. L. (2011). Risk of bladder cancer among diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone: interim report of a longitudinal cohort study. Diabetes Care34(4), 916-922.

The goals of the study were not defined clearly, but the model was given a little direction regarding the study. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but had a typical framework. The description of the study was precisely given, but the location of the study was questionable. The design of the study was described clearly initially in the form of an abstract. The data collection instruments were not specific, but at some places, sources were described from time to time.Neither, the reliability nor the validity was given for the instruments because the instruments themselves were not stated clearly. The results do not address the study hypothesis having any evident statistical analysis. The conclusion of the studies was not reasonable in the light of data analyzed because there were many limitations in the study so it must be rejected. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not specified. The study implications were not useful because there was bias in the study analysis.

Newton, C. C., Gapstur, S. M., Campbell, P. T., & Jacobs, E. J. (2013). Type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin‐use and risk of bladder cancer in a large cohort study. International journal of cancer132(9), 2186-2191.

The goals of the study were defined clearly to better understand the prognosis as well as the etiology of colorectal cancer. The hypothesis was given distinctly but could be much more specific. The description of the study was precise given thoroughly, and the location of the study was nationally selected. The design of the study was described in the form of a cohort study. The data collection instruments were specific and were very logical. The reliability and validity were given for the instruments extremely clearly during the framing of the study. The results directly address the study hypothesis by analyzing a thorough study. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the tissue analysis helped in the grouping of the participants. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was selected nationally. The study implications were useful to the researchers for establishing a large tissue repository of patients with colon cancer.

Patel, A. V., Jacobs, E. J., Dudas, D. M., Briggs, P. J., Lichtman, C. J., Bain, E. B., … & Gaudet, M. M. (2017). The American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS‐3): Recruitment, study design, and baseline characteristics. Cancer123(11), 2014-2024.

The goals of the study were defined clearly in understanding the etiology of the disease.The hypothesis was not given distinctly but could be made out of references.The description of the study was comprehensive, but the exact location of the study was not exposed.The design of the study was given a four-way approach by entitling all the steps.The data collection instruments were precise and were very useful in the study.The reliability and validity were given in the numerical format.The results directly address the study hypothesis by giving the idea of the causes that might provoke disease.The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the study plan was small in size.There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not exact.The study implications were meaningful to all the variable ages, ethnicity, etc.

Patterson, B. H., Block, G., Rosenberger, W. F., Pee, D., &Kahle, L. L. (1990). Fruit and vegetables in the American diet: data from the NHANES II survey. American Journal of Public Health80(12), 1443-1449.

The goals of the study were not defined clearly, but the statistics were analyzed in a better way. The hypothesis was not stated comprehensively, but the description of the study was precisely given thoroughly, however, the location of the study was questionable. The design of the study was described clearly initially in the form of an abstract. The data collection instruments were not specific, and neither, the reliability nor the validity was given for the instruments because the instruments themselves were not stated clearly. The results directly address the study hypothesis by giving statistical analysis. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because fruits and vegetables have a great impact on the health of the individuals. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not specified. The study implications were useful at a universal level.

Stewart, B. W. K. P., & Wild, C. P. (2014). World cancer report 2014.

The goals of the study were defined clearly in the very beginning by examining cancer pattern reliability. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but could be made out of references.The description of the study was precise given thoroughly, and the location of the study was nationally selected.The design of the study was described in the methodology of the global view.The data collection instruments were specific and were very useful in the study.The reliability and validity were given for the instruments extremely clearly.The results directly address the study hypothesis by giving statistical analysis.The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the chronic conditions helped in the ranking of the participants.There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was selected nationwide.The study implications were useful to the researchers for measuring the reliability and validity of a prevention study.

Secondary Sources

Arday, D. R., Tomar, S. L., Nelson, D. E., Merritt, R. K., Schooley, M. W., & Mowery, P. (1997). State smoking prevalence estimates: a comparison of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and current population surveys. American Journal of Public Health87(10), 1665-1669.

The goals of the study were undefined with the lack of directional efforts. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way. The description of the study was given shortly, and the location of the study was given state-wise. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were provided but in a short manner. The reliability or the validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the sources of the instruments were reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving the high mortality rate due to smoking. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as the number of deaths due to smoking remained high. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was highly prone to the risk of developing cancer. The study implications were meaningful to the policymakers to control the efforts for smoking prohibition.

Awan, A., &Esfahani, K. (2018). Endocrine therapy for breast cancer in the primary care setting. Current Oncology25(4), 285.

The goals of the study were well defined with a discussion of primary care. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way stating the chosen patients were at high risk of breast cancer. The description of the study was given including a number of participants, but the location of the study was doubtful. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were not provided but anti-hormonal therapy was discussed in detail. The reliability or validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the risk factors were reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving the BCA association with the best survival rate. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as the therapy discussed was proven to have a great role in preventing the cancerous condition. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was not much focused. The study implications were meaningful to establish variant sources of therapies to cancer prevention.

Blair, A., Stewart, P., Lubin, J. H., &Forastiere, F. (2007). Methodological issues regarding confounding and exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies of occupational exposures. American journal of industrial medicine50(3), 199-207.

The goals of the study were not defined clearly, but the model was given a little direction regarding the study. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but had a typical framework. The description of the study was precisely given, but the location of the study was questionable. The design of the study was described clearly initially in the form of an abstract. The data collection instruments were not specific, but at some places, sources were described from time to time. Neither, the reliability nor the validity was given for the instruments because the instruments themselves were not stated clearly. The results do not address the study hypothesis having any evident statistical analysis. The conclusion of the studies was not reasonable in the light of data analyzed because there were many limitations in the study so it must be rejected. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was not specified. No, the study implications were not useful because there was bias in the study analysis.

Ferrara, A., Lewis, J. D., &Habel, L. A. (2015). Pioglitazone Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer—Reply. Jama314(23), 2568-2569.

The goals of the study were defined clearly to better understand the relationship between diabetes and bladder cancer. The hypothesis was given distinctly but could be much more specific. The description of the study was precise given thoroughly, and the location of the study was nationally selected. The design of the study was described in the form of a cohort study. The data collection instruments were specific and were very logical. The reliability and validity were given for the instruments extremely clearly during the framing of the study. The results directly address the study hypothesis by analyzing a thorough study. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the tissue analysis with diabetes helped in the grouping of the participants. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was selected nationally. The study implications were useful to the researchers for establishing a large tissue repository of patients with bladder cancer.

Forrest, G., Plumb, C., Ziebland, S., & Stein, A. (2006). Breast cancer in the family—children’s perceptions of their mother’s cancer and its initial treatment: qualitative study. Bmj332(7548), 998-1003.

The goals of the study were well defined with a discussion of primary care. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way stating the chosen patients had one of the family member suffering from the disease. The description of the study was given including severalparticipants, and the location of the study was selected on home to the home basis in England. The design of the study was described very much in detail step by step through thematic analysis. The data collection instruments were provided with a door to door approach. The reliability or validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the inability of having a successful conversation was reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by relating the stressful situations that kids faced after seeing the mother at once after undergoing therapy. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as the therapy discussed was proven to have a great role in abolishing the stigma of breast cancer. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied with the help of mutual awareness. The study implications were meaningful to initiate a conversation between parents and the child suffering from the disease.

Friedenreich, C. M. (2001). Physical activity and cancer prevention: from observational to intervention research. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers10(4), 287-301.

The goals of the study were well defined with a discussion of the increasingly sedentary lifestyle among people. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way stating the chosen patients were at high risk of developing sedentary lifestyle diseases. The description of the study was given including several participants, but the location of the study was doubtful. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were not provided, but physical activity therapy was discussed in detail. The reliability or validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the risk factors were reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving a sedentary lifestyle to root for cancerous conditions. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as the therapy discussed was proven to have a great role in preventing the cancerous condition. There was no extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was not much focused. The study implications were meaningful to establish variant sources of therapies to cancer prevention.

Jack Jr, C. R., Reese, D. F., &Scheithauer, B. W. (1986). Radiographic findings in 32 cases of primary CNS lymphoma. American journal of roentgenology146(2), 271-276.

The goals of the study were defined clearly in the very beginning by examining the one-year test and retest reliability. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but could be made out of references. The description of the study was precise given thoroughly, and the location of the study was nationally selected. The design of the study was described in the method of triads. The data collection instruments were specific and were very useful in the study. The reliability and validity were given for the instruments extremely clearly. The results directly address the study hypothesis by giving statistical analysis. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the sedentary behavior helped in the ranking of the participants. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was selected nationwide. The study implications were useful to the researchers for measuring the reliability and validity of a prevention study.

Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., Lauby-Secretan, B., El Ghissassi, F., Bouvard, V., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., … &Straif, K. (2013). The carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. The lancet oncology14(13), 1262-1263.

The goals of the study were undefined with the lack of directional efforts. The hypothesis was stated in a summarized way. The description of the study was given shortly, and the location of the study was given state-wise. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were provided but in a short manner. The reliability or the validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the sources of the instruments were reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving the high mortality rate due to air pollution. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as several deaths due to polluted air remained high. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was highly prone to the risk of developing cancer. The study implications were meaningful to the policymakers to control the efforts for pollution prohibition.

McCullough, M. L., Patel, A. V., Kushi, L. H., Patel, R., Willett, W. C., Doyle, C., … &Gapstur, S. M. (2011). Following cancer prevention guidelines reduces risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers20(6), 1089-1097.

The goals of the study were defined clearly related to lifestyle changes to prevent cancer. The hypothesis was given in a crystal-clear manner along with methods of goal achievement. The description of the study was vast and efficient, and the location of the study was nationally selected which is the US. The design of the study was described in the form of a cohort study. The data collection instruments were specific and were very logical. The reliability and validity were not given for the instruments clearly during the framing of the study. The results directly address the study hypothesis which means lifestyle behavior may trigger cancer in various ways. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed because the lifestyle factor analysis helped in targeting the etiology. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population because the population studied was selected nationally. The study implications were useful to the researchers for applying the effect of smoking and other habits to various studies.

Murgia, I., Tarantino, D., Vannini, C., Bracale, M., Carravieri, S., & Soave, C. (2004). Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase show increased resistance to Paraquat‐induced photooxidative stress and to nitric oxide‐induced cell death. The Plant Journal38(6), 940-953.

The goals of the study were not defined clearly, but the model was given a little direction regarding the study. The hypothesis was not given distinctly but had a typical framework. The description of the study was precisely given thoroughly, but the location of the study was questionable. The design of the study was described clearly in a long abstract. The data collection instruments were provided but in a short manner. The reliability or the validity was not given precisely for the instruments while the sources of the instruments were reported. The results directly address the study hypothesis by proving the high mortality rate due to DNA damage. The conclusion of the studies was reasonable in the light of data analyzed as various effects of Vitamin C could be analyzed. There was an extrapolation of findings to a similar population as the population studied was highly prone to the risk of developing cancer. The study implications were meaningful to policymakers to suggest the causes of cell damage.

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