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Each week you have assembled a different part of your research paper (except for week 6). Please make sure that you read the comments and corrections and institute them into your final paper as needed. Note: The annotated bibliography paragraphs are not included in the paper. The references from the portfolio (as corrected) should be on the reference page of your final paper. The outline is NOT included in the paper. The outline is used to help you with the flow of your paper.
Remember that you will be using the same selected topic with all the assignments (except week 6) during the eight weeks of the course.
1. You must have 10 scholarly articles that are within the last 10 years. Scholarly articles are peer reviewed and can be found via the APU/AMU library. You do not submit the annotated bibliography as part of the final paper. You do use properly formatted references for the reference page.
2. Follow the detailed outline that you submitted. Your detailed outline is to help you write the paper and to ensure all references are used. It is not included in the paper.
3. Make sure that your abstract is on a separate page immediately following the title page. The heading is Abstract not the title of the paper. If you do not understand what is to be included in an abstract read the abstracts from the articles you selected. 4. Utilize the APA Helps as necessary in the Resources area to help you present your research paper in APA format, which means that you need to write a Title Page, Abstract Page and References Page separate from the body of the text of the paper. Avoid unsupported statements whenever possible. In many cases, you will write a paragraph of text and insert a citation only once. When you use a direct quote, include the page number of the source, too. Some may ask why APA is so important. APA is the mode of communication of the written word in the research field. It is the due diligence of graduate management students to excel at APA.
5. Make sure to check the Turnitin report and fix your paper for any issues with quotes and potential plagiarism.
6. Please remember this is an academic paper and 3rd person is required.
Expert Answer and Explanation
One of the components that affect employee performance is job satisfaction. Having highly satisfied employees provides them with the motivation to pull in their maximum efforts to accomplish organizational goals. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of job satisfaction and how it can be enhanced within the workplace. This paper will give a review of literature on the aspect of job satisfaction, where the definition of job satisfaction, determinants, and effects will be discussed. The findings from the reviewed literature identified various determinants of job satisfaction including leadership, teamwork, empowerment, workplace environment, and organizational culture. It was recommended that by acting on these factors, the organization will stand to benefit from the advantages of having high levels of job satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction in Healthcare Organizations
One of the components that affect employee performance is job satisfaction. Having highly satisfied employees provides them with the motivation to pull in their maximum efforts to accomplish organizational goals. Having a work environment with high job satisfaction can act as a strategic value in gaining a competitive edge in any industry the organization is in. High job satisfaction is essential in improving organizational efficiency, productivity, and commitment (Raziq & Maulabakhsh, 2015). Similarly, the organization has a lot to lose if its employees are not satisfied. One of the drawbacks of having unsatisfied employees is reduced organizational productivity, increased cases of organizational conflicts, high employee turnover, to list a few. This indicates the need to have in place a system that facilitates high job satisfaction at all times. However, putting in place such a system is not as simple as it may seem. It is for these reasons that this paper will try to evaluate the determinants of job satisfaction and how it can be enhanced within the workplace. This paper will give a review of literature on the aspect of job satisfaction, the findings from the collected literature, and recommend a practice change that will aim to enhance job satisfaction within the workplace.
Different elements determine the level of employee job satisfaction. Starting with the definition of the concept, job satisfaction according to Singh et al. (2019), job satisfaction can be defined as a multidimensional reaction to work within the work environment setting. By terming job satisfaction as being multidimensional means that more than one element, for example, employees’ attitudes, motivation, perception, to list a few affects whether they are going to have a high job satisfaction or not. The authors further note that the element of job satisfaction is affected by many factors that affect how employees behave and in turn, how the organization functions. In a different study by Choi et al. (2016), it was indicated that job satisfaction was a manifestation brought about as a result of an increased sense of meaning at work and an improved sense of accomplishment. Using this definition, it can be said that the efforts put in place by the management can have an influence on the internal motivational aspects of the employees which can affect their level of job satisfaction. It can therefore be said that one of the characteristics of job satisfaction is that is an internal aspect that defines the employees’ feelings, perceptions, and attitudes towards the organization and their work.
Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Identifying the factors that contribute to high job satisfaction within the workplace allows the organization to improve on those factors, and reap on the benefits of having high levels of job satisfaction. Different studies have indicated different factors that affect job satisfaction. From the selected studies there are similarly several factors that were identified. For example, in a study by Hanaysha and Tahir (2016), it was perceived that employee training and empowerment had an impact on job satisfaction. Training and empowering employees means that the organization will be equipping them with the necessary skills to allow them to discharge their mandate with little supervision. Training and empowerment also allow employees to be innovative and feel a sense of accomplishment which in turn affects employee job satisfaction. In another study by Choi et al. (2016), the same sentiments were also shared where empowerment of the workforce was also considered a factor that affected employee job satisfaction. The authors noted the fact that improved quality and efficiency of the workforce had an impact on their internal sense of achievement thus affecting their level of satisfaction with the services they offered.
Teamwork was also considered to be another factor that was identified to influence job satisfaction. This was also found it the studies by Hanaysha and Tahir (2016) and Körner et al., (2015). The fact that the employees within the organization can function collaboratively in fulfilling a unified goal had a sense of internal and shared satisfaction amongst themselves. Teamwork was also considered to have a positive effect on reducing the level of workload done by employees and reduced the number of errors experienced. All these features were found to have a positive impact on job satisfaction as noted by the two authors.
Leadership was considered to be a very strong factor that also influenced job satisfaction. For example, in the study by Feather et al., (2015), it was noted that the perception held by nurses towards their leaders, for example, had a great impact on their job satisfaction. This shows that even the behavior, how the managers deal with their subordinates, how they allocate tasks, and the interprofessional relationship they have with their subordinates are considered important features to take note of when influencing the level of job satisfaction within the workplace. The same perceptions were also echoed by Choi et al. (2016) and Körner et al., (2015) who also indicated that the type of organizational leadership in place had an impact on the level of job satisfaction. Choi et al. (2016) noted that a transactional form of leadership within the healthcare context was considered a contributing factor to high staff turnover, indicating that lower levels of job satisfaction were attributed to this kind of leadership. Therefore, the authors note that supplementing transactional leadership with a transformational style of leadership can help to improve the level of job satisfaction and reduce the level of employee turnover. Körner et al., (2015) highlights that the functioning of teams is highly dependent on the kind of leadership in place, with aspects such as workplace conflicts, which reduce the level of job satisfaction being dealt with by good leadership.
Organizational culture and the workplace environment were also considered to be major determinants of job satisfaction. For example, Oliveira et al. (2018) and Tarcan et al. (2017) noted that amount of workload distributed to employees and how burnout is dealt with influenced the level of job satisfaction among employees. The same sentiments in terms of the workplace environment were also shared by Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015)and Chang and Cho (2016) who also elaborated on the aspect of workplace environment as being a contributor to low job satisfaction. Therefore, the opinions collected from the various authors further augment the notion that job satisfaction is a multivariate aspect as highlighted by Singh et al. (2019).
Effects of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction can be viewed as a strategic component in the organization. Salem et al. (2016) note that high-performance organizations usually have high levels of job satisfaction. The individual effects of job satisfaction to the organization and its stakeholders cannot be discounted as will be described in this section.
In a study by Choi et al. (2016), it was noted that high job satisfaction had a positive impact on the reduction of employee turnover rates. The same view goes in line with Hanaysha and Tahir (2016) who also indicated that employee loyalty and commitment within the organization rise with an increase in the level of job satisfaction.
High levels of job satisfaction was also linked with an improvement in quality and efficiency within the workplace. This was confirmed by Choi et al. (2016) who noted that empowered employees are likely to deliver quality services and in an efficient manner which will improve their level of satisfaction and the need to maintain the same level of standards.
High job satisfaction also results to better mental and physical health which will greatly contribute to increased employee productivity as noted by Oliveira et al. (2018). According to the authors, it was noted that employee job satisfaction reduced the level of depression, and instances of both physical and mental burnout, which was an indicative factor of increased productivity. Such work environments had also fewer instances of job-related conflicts. The cumulative impact of high job satisfaction is improved organizational performance, satisfied customers, and improvement of the organization’s competitive position (Choi et al., 2016).
From the findings collected in the reviewed literature, various themes were established in relation to the level of job satisfaction. One of the findings was that the leadership had a major significance in influencing the level of job satisfaction among employees (Choi et al., 2016). It was seen that the type of leadership influenced other determinants of job satisfaction from the collected evidence detailed in the literature reviewed. Teamwork, employee empowerment, and workplace culture were some of the attributes affected by leadership which also doubled up as being determinants of job satisfaction.
There were also controllable variants within the workplace like burnout and workplace violence which had an adverse effect on the level of job satisfaction. Dealing away with the two elements had a positive effect on the physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing of employees, thus improving their level of job satisfaction (Oliveira et al., 2018). The authors in the reviewed literature further noted that controlling the elements, for example, by enhancing employee empowerment through training and mentoring (Hanaysha & Tahir, 2016); improving the level of teamwork as indicated by Körner et al., (2015); reducing nurse burnout, and putting in place good organizational leadership (Choi et al., 2016); then it is expected that the organization will have various benefits which are accompanied with high levels of job satisfaction. Such benefits include increased employee efficiency and product/service quality, reduced employee turnover rates, increased loyalty, and commitment to the organization.
From the collected findings, the following can be given as recommendations. To have a workplace environment with high levels of job satisfaction, the organization needs to consider putting in place a facilitative culture. A culture that embraces good leadership, teamwork, and empowerment of its employees. Having a conducive organization culture should provide the platforms of changing the other determinants of job satisfaction. The organization should then consider adopting an appropriate style of leadership. The leadership style should be one that encourages teamwork and employee empowerment, given that the two aspects are major determinants of job satisfaction. Training of employees to continuously improve their skills is also advised as part of the employee empowerment program. Lastly, it is also recommended for the organization to consider ways of reducing work overloads or any other adverse conditions that can lead to burnout. Putting these measures in place will facilitate an improvement in job satisfaction, and in turn, employee loyalty, commitment, and ultimately improved organizational performance.
From the paper, it has been established that job satisfaction plays an essential role in improving employee loyalty, commitment, and ultimately organizational productivity. It has also been established that job satisfaction is an aspect that is determined by different organizational factors, including leadership, organizational culture, empowerment, and teamwork. Factoring these elements to create a conducive workplace can assist in enhancing employee job satisfaction as indicated in the recommendations based on the findings collected from the reviewed literature.
Chang, H. E., & Cho, S. H. (2016). Workplace violence and job outcomes of newly licensed nurses. Asian nursing research, 10(4), 271-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2016.09.001
Choi, S. L., Goh, C. F., Adam, M. B., & Tan, O. K. (2016). Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of employee empowerment. Human resources for health, 14(1), 73. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-016-0171-2
Feather, R. A., Ebright, P., & Bakas, T. (2015). Nurse Manager Behaviors That RNs Perceive to Affect Their Job Satisfaction. Nursing Forum, 50(2), 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12086
Hanaysha, J., & Tahir, P. R. (2016). Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on job satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 272-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.016
Körner, M., Wirtz, M. A., Bengel, J., & Göritz, A. S. (2015). Relationship of organizational culture, teamwork, and job satisfaction in interprofessional teams. BMC health services research, 15(1), 243.
Oliveira, A. M., Silva, M. T., Galvão, T. F., & Lopes, L. C. (2018). The relationship between job satisfaction, burnout syndrome, and depressive symptoms: An analysis of professionals in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Medicine, 97(49), e13364. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013364
Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015). Impact of working environment on job satisfaction. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 717-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00524-9
Salem, O. A., Baddar, F., & AL-Mugatti, H. M. (2016). Relationship between nurses’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 5(1), 49-55. DOI: 10.9790/1959-05114955
Singh, T., Kaur, M., Verma, M., & Kumar, R. (2019). Job satisfaction among health care providers: A cross-sectional study in public health facilities of Punjab, India. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 8(10), 3268–3275. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_600_19
Tarcan, M., Hikmet, N., Schooley, B., Top, M., & Tarcan, G. Y. (2017). An analysis of the relationship between burnout, socio-demographic and workplace factors and job satisfaction among emergency department health professionals. Applied nursing research, 34, 40-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2017.02.011
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