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[ANSWERED] Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study

Assignment: Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

Note: This Assignment is due on Day 5 of Week 11.

If you talk about a possible poor health outcome, do you believe that outcome will occur? Do you believe eye contact and personal contact should be avoided?

You would have a difficult time practicing as a nurse if you believed these to be true. But they are very real beliefs in some cultures.

Differences in cultural beliefs, subcultures, religion, ethnic customs, dietary customs, language, and a host of other factors contribute to the complex environment that surrounds global healthcare issues. Failure to understand and account for these differences can create a gulf between practitioners and the public they serve.

In this Assignment, you will examine a global health issue and consider the approach to this issue by the United States and by one other country.

To Prepare:

  • Review the World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda and select one global health issue to focus on for this Assignment.
  • Select at least one additional country to compare to the U.S. for this Assignment.
  • Reflect on how the global health issue you selected is approached in the U.S. and in the additional country you selected.
  • Review and download the Global Health Comparison Matrix provided in the Resources.

The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Global Health Comparison Matrix; 1-page Plan for Social Change)

Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix

Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:

  • Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study.
  • Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.
  • Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the global health issue you selected. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Using the WHO’s Organization’s global health agenda as well as the results of your own research, analyze how each country’s government addresses cost, quality, and access to the global health issue selected.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the health of the global population. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the role of the nurse in each country.
  • Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. Be specific and provide examples.

Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment and the impact that global health issues may have on the world, the U.S., your community, as well as your practice as a nurse leader.

In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

  • Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples

Expert Answer and Explanation

Global Health Comparison Grid Template

Use this document to complete the Module 6 Assessment Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

Global Healthcare Issue  

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Description Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a viral infection that attacks the body’s immune system rendering it incapable of fighting against other disease-causing pathogens. It is estimated that almost 38 million people globally have HIV, with a majority of them being in developing countries (Mahy et al., 2021).

 

Country United States (U.S.)

 

Spain
Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue One of the policies that address HIV in the U.S is referred to as Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. (EHE) which was proposed by former President Donald Trump. The policy aims to infuse and coordinate additional resources, technology, and expertise through the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) agencies to implement tailored plans to combat the disease (Beyrer et al., 2021).

 

 

 

 

Spain, after the recommendations of the European Union, implemented the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy, through which they created the Information System for PrEP programs in Spain (SIPrEP). This program is aimed to reduce the number of new HIV cases in Spain by collecting information and using it as a source of evidence to implement targeted efforts towards combating HIV.

What are the strengths of this policy? There are various strengths attached to this policy, the first being the infusion of additional resources towards preventive efforts. Another strength of the policy is having coordinated efforts through the agencies within DHHS. This enables better efficiency and targeted efforts towards combating the disease (Beyrer et al., 2021)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The policy’s strength lies in the coordinated efforts from different government agencies, including regional government and other non-governmental agencies as sources of information that will facilitate targeted efforts toward combating the disease (HIV Outcomes, n.d.).

What are the weaknesses of this policy? One of the weaknesses of this policy is that funding of the program is subject to congressional approval at a time when the COVID-19 Pandemic has taken center stage. This means that the program is likely to have unmet budgetary allocations which could hinder the success of its implementation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Similar to the case of the U.S, the current COVID-19 pandemic has impeded full implementation of the program.

Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)

 

There are several social determinants of health associated with HIV, some of which include economic status and level of education, where those from low-income families are disproportionately affected by the disease. Persons living in rural communities are also more likely to be infected by the disease compared to those living in urban areas (Breskin et al., 2017). Low health literacy, marital status, unemployment, and migratory habits are some of the social determinants of HIV in Spain. The listed social determinants affect the usage of preventive options. The social determinants also contribute to various risk activities associated with HIV, for example engaging in unprotected premarital sex.
How has each country’s government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue?  

The U.S has been steadfast in addressing HIV by improving access to preventive care against HIV, especially among vulnerable population groups. The new EHE policy aims to boost those efforts even further.

 

 

Like the U.S Spain has also invested most of its finances in improving preventive strategies against HIV.

How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) The implementation of EHE sets precedence through which other countries can adopt towards targeted efforts in fighting against HIV. Given how long the disease has prevailed, and the fact that there is still no vaccine yet, having alternative workable strategies to combat the infection will help the global population.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Through preventive strategies like the SIPrEP program, Spain can share information that could be used in other countries to implement preventive strategies leading to better outcomes for the global population in so far as HIV is concerned.

Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of a nurse in each country. With the implementation of the EHE, the role of nurses as community/patient advocates will receive a boost since it is expected that there will be a significant drop in HIV cases, especially among communities with significant disparities in the infection, for example, those living in rural areas.

 

 

 

 

With access to evidence-based information, the role of nurses as patient advocates and educators will be enhanced, especially through targeted and coordinated health promotion initiatives against HIV.

Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples) HIV has significantly impacted the amount of health care funding causing realignment of some policies that would have otherwise benefited from the funding. Implementing policies to reduce the prevalence of the disease will have a positive impact on other health care programs. Spain being part of the EU has to adopt several policies that may interfere with their local programs. However, such agreements are meant to have coordinated efforts towards reducing the prevalence of the disease across the continent and the world.
General Notes/Comments While the trends in new HIV cases have been reducing over time, more could still be done to achieve better results in HIV prevention. The EHE provides a roadmap through which further decrease in new infections could be achieved.

 

 

 

The strategy employed by Spain is slightly different from that of the U.S, however, both emphasize on preventive measures as the most suitable approach in dealing with the HIV epidemic.

Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

How I Would Advocate for the Incorporation of a Global Perspective in My Role as a Nurse Leader.

Nurse leaders need to respond to different global issues such as epidemics through coordinated response (Corless et al., 2018). One of the ways this can be achieved is through collecting and sharing information on how to address the pertinent health issues. As nurse leaders, we can advocate for the incorporation of global perspectives into local practice by providing evidence-based information on initiatives that have worked in different global settings.

How Incorporation of a Global Perspective Impacts my Role as a Nurse Leader.

Having a global perspective provides alternative strategies that could be used to address different health issues. As a nurse leader, I would collect and analyze the data collected from the different strategies and use those that are workable to advocate for better patient outcomes. Different global perspectives could be used as a basis for implementing more efficient cost-effective interventions in addressing pertinent health care issues such as HIV.

How the Incorporation of a Global Perspective Contributes to Social Change

Having different perspectives through analysis of different approaches used in other countries can provide a great platform through which nurses can employ foreign solutions to local social issues. As nurse leaders, we are required to integrate available evidence from different sources that could result in better patient outcomes (Milstead & Short, 2019). For example, many patients with chronic diseases end up becoming impoverished due to the treatment costs attached. Obtaining innovative solutions that could address the various disease end up having a positive on the social welfare of those who would have otherwise been affected,

References

Beyrer, C., Adimora, A. A., Hodder, S. L., Hopkins, E., Millett, G., Mon, S. H. H.,  & Mayer, K. H. (2021). Call to action: how can the US Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative succeed?. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00390-1

Breskin, A., Adimora, A. A., & Westreich, D. (2017). Women and HIV in the United States. PLoS One12(2), e0172367. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172367

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention.

Corless, I. B., Nardi, D., Milstead, J. A., Larson, E., Nokes, K. M., Orsega, S., Kurth, A. E., Kirksey, K. M., & Woith, W. (2018). Expanding nursing’s role in responding to global pandemics 5/14/2018. Nursing Outlook66(4), 412–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2018.06.003

HIV Outcomes (n.d.) HIV Outcomes Spain: Implementation of PrEP in Spain – The Result of a Collective Effort. https://hivoutcomes.eu/case_study/hiv-outcomes-spain-implementation-of-prep-in-spain/

Mahy, M. I., Sabin, K. M., Feizzadeh, A., & Wanyeki, I. (2021). Progress towards 2020 global HIV impact and treatment targets. Journal of the International AIDS Society24, e25779. https://doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25779

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington,

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