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[ANSWERED]  A 27-year-old patient with a history of substance abuse is found unresponsive by emergency medical services (EMS) after being called by the patient’s roommate. The roommate states that he does not know how long the patient had been lying there

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Scenario 4: A 27-year-old patient with a history of substance abuse is found unresponsive by emergency medical services (EMS) after being called by the patient’s roommate. The roommate states that he does not know how long the patient had been lying there. Patient received naloxone in the field and has become responsive. He complains of burning pain over his left hip and forearm. Evaluation in the ED revealed a large amount of necrotic tissue over the greater trochanter as well as the forearm. EKG demonstrated prolonged PR interval and peaked T waves. Serum potassium level 6.9 mEq/L.

Write an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario provided above. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Pathophysiology for NP

Role of Genetics in the Disease

Studies have found that genes play a huge role in determining whether one is going to be addicted to alcohol, nicotine, and other hard drugs. For instance, a study by Abbasian, Lockington, Megharaj, and Naidu (2016) showed that children whose parents were addicts are eight times more likely to be addicted to any of the hard drugs.

Reasons for Presenting the Symptoms

The patient became unresponsive because he may have used opioid substances in large quantity. This is evident because he became responsive after receiving naloxone. Zhang (2019) reports that naloxone is the drug used to lower the effects of an opioid in people who have consumed the substance in a large amount. The burning pain is the side effect of the opioid taken in large amounts.

Physiologic Response

The stimulus in this scenario is the naloxone. This drug has caused physiological response, and as a result, the patient was brought back to a responsive state. This response occurred when the drug triggered the patient’s heart and made it beat faster, and this made the patient wake up.

The Cells Involved 

The cells involved in this process are found in the brain. These cells are found in the brain reward system. The stimuli work by increasing the sensitivity to aversion in a move to reverse the effects of the opioid on the body. Some of the cells involved in the process are D 1-type medium spiny neurons and DeltaFosB (Liu & Tang, 2020).

How Another Characteristic Would Change Your Response

Genetics can change the response in that people with genes that support addiction will reduce the functions of the stimuli on the body.

References

Abbasian, F., Lockington, R., Megharaj, M., & Naidu, R. (2016). A review on the genetics of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 178(2), 224-250. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12010-015-1881-y

Liu, N., & Tang, M. (2020). Toxic effects and involved molecular pathways of nanoparticles on cells and subcellular organelles. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 40(1), 16-36. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jat.3817

Zhang, W. C. (2019). U.S. Patent No. 10,287,296. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US10287296B2/en

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