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[ANSWERED] A 16-year-old boy comes to clinic with chief complaint of sore throat for 3 days. Denies fever or chills. PMH negative for recurrent colds, influenza, ear infections or pneumonias

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Scenario 1: A 16-year-old boy comes to clinic with chief complaint of sore throat for 3 days. Denies fever or chills. PMH negative for recurrent colds, influenza, ear infections or pneumonias. NKDA or food allergies. Physical exam reveals temp of 99.6 F, pulse 78 and regular with respirations of 18. HEENT normal with exception of reddened posterior pharynx with white exudate on tonsils that are enlarged to 3+. Positive anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Rapid strep test performed in office was positive. His HCP wrote a prescription for amoxicillin 500 mg po q 12 hours x 10 days disp #20. He took the first capsule when he got home and immediately complained of swelling of his tongue and lips, difficulty breathing with audible wheezing. 911 was called and he was taken to the hospital, where he received emergency treatment for his allergic reaction.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Alterations in Cellular Process

Role of Genes in the Disease

Genes play a significant role in diseases associated with throat diseases, especially in children. Stefano, Challenger & Kream (2016) report that a combination of immunoglobin and genetic factors improves susceptibility for some kids to contract bacteria that cause a sore throat or strep throat. The researchers argue that certain genes reduce the immune system of children and expose them to throat bacteria.

Reasons for Presenting Described Symptoms

Temp of 99.6 F and reddened posterior pharynx that has 3+ enlarged while exudate shows that the patient has strep throat. This assertion has been supported by a lab result that showed positive for strep throat test. Difficulty breathing, swelling of the lips and tongue, and audible wheezing were showed that the patient is allergic to amoxicillin.

Physiologic Response

The physiologic response to stimulus in this scenario is an allergic reaction. An allergic reaction is when the body reacts to new elements that have entered the system. This response occurred because the patient’s antibodies went to fight amoxicillin, thinking that it poses a threat to the body. The reaction between the patient’s antibodies and the drug resulted in the mentioned symptoms.

Cells Involved

The cells involved in this process include mast cells and immunoglobin E antibodies (IgE) (Muro, 2018). The process occurs when the IgE binds to the stimuli and then move to a receptor of the second cell known as basophils or mast cell. In the receptor, the two cells react with the allergen and release a chemical, such as a histamine (Muro, 2018).

How another Factor can Influence the Response

Genetics can change the response in those people with a genetic sequence that embraces the allergy will have a more severe impact compared to people whose genetics have not allergy strings (Muro, 2018).

References

Muro, S. (2018). Alterations in cellular processes involving vesicular trafficking and implications in drug delivery. Biomimetics, 3(3), 19. file:///C:/Users/OnamMagy/Downloads/biomimetics-03-00019-v3.pdf

Stefano, G. B., Challenger, S., & Kream, R. M. (2016). Hyperglycemia-associated alterations in cellular signaling and dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics in human metabolic disorders. European journal of nutrition, 55(8), 2339-2345. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-016-1212-2

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